genreport.c 45.4 KB
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/*
 * Copyright (C) 2016  Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
 *
 * This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public
 * License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this
 * file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/.
 */

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#include <stdio.h>
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#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
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#include <assert.h>
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#include <sys/types.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <arpa/nameser.h>
#include <sys/select.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
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#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <sys/uio.h>
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#include <errno.h>
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#include <netdb.h>
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#include <resolv.h>
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#define ns_t_rrsig 46
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#define ns_t_dnskey 48

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static int eof = 0;
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static int maxfd = -1;
static fd_set rfds, wfds;
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static int outstanding = 0;
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static int maxoutstanding = 100;
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static void(*rhandlers[FD_SETSIZE])(int);
static void(*whandlers[FD_SETSIZE])(int);

static int udp4 = -1;
static int udp6 = -1;
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static int ipv4only = 0;
static int ipv6only = 0;

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static int debug = 0;
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static int what = 0;
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static int inorder = 0;
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static union res_sockaddr_union servers[10];
static int nservers = 0;
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/*
 * Doubly linked list macros.
 */
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#define APPEND(list, item, link) do { \
	if ((list).tail) \
		(list).tail->link.next = (item); \
	else \
		(list).head = (item); \
	(item)->link.prev = list.tail; \
	(item)->link.next = NULL; \
	(list).tail = (item); \
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	(item)->link.linked = 1; \
} while (0)

#define PREPEND(list, item, link) do { \
	if ((list).head) \
		(list).head->link.prev = (item); \
	else \
		(list).tail = (item); \
	(item)->link.prev = NULL; \
	(item)->link.next = list.head; \
	(list).head = (item); \
	(item)->link.linked = 1; \
} while (0)

#define INSERTBEFORE(list, before, item, link) do { \
	assert(LINKED(before, link)); \
	if ((before)->link.prev == NULL) \
		PREPEND(list, item, link); \
	else { \
		(item)->link.prev = (before)->link.prev; \
		(before)->link.prev = (item); \
		(item)->link.prev->link.next = (item); \
		(item)->link.next = (before); \
	} \
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} while (0)

#define UNLINK(list, item, link) do { \
	if ((item)->link.next) \
		(item)->link.next->link.prev = (item)->link.prev; \
	else \
		list.tail = (item)->link.prev; \
	if ((item)->link.prev) \
		(item)->link.prev->link.next = (item)->link.next; \
	else \
		list.head = (item)->link.next; \
	(item)->link.next = (item)->link.prev = NULL; \
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	(item)->link.linked = 0; \
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} while (0)

#define NEXT(item, link) (item)->link.next
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#define PREV(item, link) (item)->link.prev
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#define LINKED(item, link) (item)->link.linked
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#define HEAD(list) (list).head
#define TAIL(list) (list).tail

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/*
 * Test groupings
 */
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#define EDNS 0x0
#define COMM 0x1
#define FULL 0x2

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static struct {
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	const char *name;		/* test nmemonic */
	unsigned int what;		/* select what test to make / report */
	unsigned short rdlen;		/* edns rdata length */
	const char *rdata;		/* edns rdata */
	unsigned short udpsize;		/* edns UDP size (0 == no EDNS) */
	unsigned short flags;		/* edns flags to be set */
	unsigned short version;		/* edns version */
	unsigned int tcp;		/* use tcp */
	unsigned int ignore;		/* ignore tc in response */
	unsigned int tc;		/* set tc in request */
	unsigned int rd;		/* set rd in request */
	unsigned int ra;		/* set ra in request */
	unsigned int cd;		/* set cd in request */
	unsigned int ad;		/* set ad  in request */
	unsigned int aa;		/* set aa in request */
	unsigned int z;			/* set z in request */
	unsigned int opcode;		/* use opcode for request */
	unsigned short type;		/* query type code */
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} opts[] = {
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	{ "dns",       EDNS,  0, "",    0, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
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	{ "aa",        FULL,  0, "",    0, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
	{ "ad",        FULL,  0, "",    0, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
	{ "cd",        FULL,  0, "",    0, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
	{ "ra",        FULL,  0, "",    0, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
	{ "rd",        FULL,  0, "",    0, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
	{ "tc",        FULL,  0, "",    0, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
	{ "zflag",     FULL,  0, "",    0, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1,  0, ns_t_soa },
	{ "opcode",    FULL,  0, "",    0, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 15, 0 },
	{ "opcodeflg", FULL,  0, "",    0, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 15, 0 },
	{ "type666",   FULL,  0, "",    0, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, 666 },
	{ "tcp",       FULL,  0, "",    0, 0x0000, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
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	{ "edns",      EDNS,  0, "", 4096, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
	{ "edns1",     EDNS,  0, "", 4096, 0x0000, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
	{ "edns@512",  EDNS,  0, "",  512, 0x0000, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_dnskey },
	{ "ednsopt",   EDNS,  4, "\x00\x64\x00",
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				     4096, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
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	{ "edns1opt",  EDNS,  4, "\x00\x64\x00",
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				     4096, 0x0000, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
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	{ "do",        EDNS,  4, "\0\144\0",
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				     4096, 0x8000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
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	{ "edns1do",   FULL,  0, "", 4096, 0x8000, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
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	{ "ednsflags", EDNS,  0, "", 4096, 0x0080, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
	{ "optlist",   EDNS,  4 + 8 + 4 + 12,
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	  "\x00\x03\x00\x00" 		     /* NSID */
	  "\x00\x08\x00\x04\x00\x01\x00\x00" /* ECS */
	  "\x00\x09\x00\x00" 		     /* EXPIRE */
	  "\x00\x0a\x00\x08\x01\x02\x03\x04\x05\x06\x07\x08",	/* COOKIE */
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				     4096, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
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	{ "edns1ecs",  FULL,  8, "\x00\x08\x00\x04\x00\x01\x00\x00",
				     4096, 0x0000, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
	{ "edns1nsid", FULL,  4, "\x00\x03\x00\x00",
				     4096, 0x0000, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
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	{ "edns1cook", FULL, 12, "\x00\x0a\x00\x08\x01\x02\x03\x04\x05\x06\x07\x08",
				     4096, 0x0000, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
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	{ "bind11",    COMM, 12,
	  "\x00\x0a\x00\x08\x01\x02\x03\x04\x05\x06\x07\x08",
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				     4096, 0x8000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
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	{ "dig11",     COMM, 12, "\x00\x0a\x00\x08\x01\x02\x03\x04\x05\x06\x07\x08",
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				     4096, 0x0000, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0,  0, ns_t_soa },
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	{ "ednstcp",   EDNS,  0, "",  512, 0x8000, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,  0, ns_t_dnskey }
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};

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/*
 * Summary structure where results from multiple lookups are recorded.
 */
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struct summary {
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	struct {
		struct summary *prev;
		struct summary *next;
		int linked;
	} link;
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	char zone[1024];		/* the zone's name */
	char ns[1024];			/* the server's name */
	struct sockaddr_storage storage;/* server we are talking to */
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	int tests;			/* number of outstanding tests */
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	int deferred;			/* was the printing deferred */
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	int done;			/* we are done */
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	int type;			/* recursive query lookup type */
	int nodataa;			/* recursive query got nodata */
	int nodataaaaa;			/* recursive query got nodata */
	int nxdomain;			/* recursive query got nxdomain */
	int nxdomaina;			/* recursive query got nxdomain */
	int nxdomainaaaa;		/* recursive query got nxdomain */
	int seenrrsig;			/* a rrsig was seen in "do" test */
	struct summary *xlink;		/* cross link of recursive A/AAAA */
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	char results[sizeof(opts)/sizeof(opts[0])][100];
};

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static struct {
	struct summary *head;
	struct summary *tail;
} summaries;

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struct workitem {
	struct {
		struct workitem *next;
		struct workitem *prev;
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		int linked;
	} link, clink, rlink, idlink;
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	unsigned short id;		/* the query id we are waiting for */
	struct timeval when;		/* when we will timeout */
	int type;			/* the query type being looked up */
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	int test;			/* test number / server number */
	int sends;			/* number of times this UDP request
					 * has been sent */
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	int buflen;			/* the size of the request to be sent */
	int tcpfd;			/* the tcp file descriptor */
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	int outstanding;		/* outstanding has been set */
	int havelen;			/* readlen is tcp message length */
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	int readlen;			/* how much we need to read */
	int read;			/* how much has been read so far */
	unsigned char buf[512];		/* the question we sent */
	unsigned char tcpbuf[0x10000];	/* where to accumulate the tcp response */
	struct summary *summary;	/* where this test is summaried */
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};

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/*
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 * Work queues:
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 *	'work' udp qeries;
 *	'connecting' tcp qeries;
 *	'reading' tcp qeries;
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 *
 * Outstanding queries by qid.
 *	'ids'
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 */
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static struct {
	struct workitem *head;
	struct workitem *tail;
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} work, connecting, reading, ids[0x10000];
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static void
connecttoserver(struct workitem *item);
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static void
report(struct summary *summary);

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static int
storage_equal(struct sockaddr_storage *s1, struct sockaddr_storage *s2) {
	struct sockaddr_in *sin1, *sin2;
	struct sockaddr_in6 *sin61, *sin62;

	if (s1->ss_len != s2->ss_len || s1->ss_family != s2->ss_family)
		return (0);

	switch (s1->ss_family) {
	case AF_INET:
		sin1 = (struct sockaddr_in *)s1;
		sin2 = (struct sockaddr_in *)s2;
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		if (sin1->sin_port != sin2->sin_port ||
		    sin1->sin_addr.s_addr != sin2->sin_addr.s_addr)
			return (0);
		return (1);
	case AF_INET6:
		sin61 = (struct sockaddr_in6 *)s1;
		sin62 = (struct sockaddr_in6 *)s2;

		if (sin61->sin6_port != sin62->sin6_port ||
		    memcmp(&sin61->sin6_addr, &sin62->sin6_addr, 16) != 0)
			return (0);
		return (1);
	}
	return (0);
}

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/*
 * Check if it is safe to use this id to this address.
 */
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static int
checkid(struct sockaddr_storage *storage, int id) {
	struct workitem *item;

	item = HEAD(ids[id]);
	while (item != NULL &&
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	       !storage_equal(storage, &item->summary->storage))
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		item = NEXT(item, idlink);
	return ((item == NULL) ? 1 : 0);
}

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static void
freesummary(struct summary *summary) {
	if (LINKED(summary, link))
		UNLINK(summaries, summary, link);
	free(summary);
}

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/*
 * Generate a report line.
 */
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static void
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printandfree(struct summary *summary) {
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	struct sockaddr_in *s = (struct sockaddr_in *)&summary->storage;
	struct sockaddr_in6 *s6 = (struct sockaddr_in6 *)&summary->storage;;
	char addrbuf[64];
	void *addr;
	unsigned int i;
	int x;

	if ((summary->type == ns_t_a || summary->type == ns_t_aaaa) &&
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	    summary->nodataa && summary->nodataaaaa) {
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		printf("%s. %s: no address records found\n",
		       summary->zone, summary->ns);
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		freesummary(summary);
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		return;
	}
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	if ((summary->type == ns_t_a || summary->type == ns_t_aaaa) &&
	    summary->nxdomaina && summary->nxdomainaaaa) {
		printf("%s. %s: no address records found (NXDOMAIN)\n",
		       summary->zone, summary->ns);
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		freesummary(summary);
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		return;
	}

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	if (summary->done || summary->nodataa || summary->nodataaaaa) {
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		freesummary(summary);
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		return;
	}
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	if (summary->type != 0 && summary->nxdomain) {
		if (summary->type == ns_t_ns) {
			printf("%s.: NS nxdomain\n", summary->zone);
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			freesummary(summary);
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			return;
		}
		printf("%s. %s:", summary->zone, summary->ns);
		if (summary->type == ns_t_a) printf(" A");
		if (summary->type == ns_t_aaaa) printf(" AAAA");
		printf(" nxdomain\n");
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		freesummary(summary);
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		return;
	}
	if (summary->type == ns_t_a) {
		printf("%s. %s:", summary->zone, summary->ns);
		printf(" A lookup failed\n");
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		freesummary(summary);
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		return;
	}
	if (summary->type == ns_t_aaaa) {
		printf("%s. %s:", summary->zone, summary->ns);
		printf(" AAAA lookup failed\n");
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		freesummary(summary);
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		return;
	}
	if (summary->type == ns_t_ns) {
		printf("%s. %s:", summary->zone, summary->ns);
		printf(" NS lookup failed\n");
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		freesummary(summary);
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		return;
	}
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	if (summary->type != 0) {
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		freesummary(summary);
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		return;
	}

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	switch (summary->storage.ss_family) {
	case AF_INET: addr = &s->sin_addr; break;
	case AF_INET6: addr = &s6->sin6_addr; break;
	default: addr = NULL; break;
	}
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	if (addr == NULL)
		strlcpy(addrbuf, "<unknown>", sizeof(addrbuf));
	else
		inet_ntop(summary->storage.ss_family, addr,
			  addrbuf, sizeof(addrbuf));

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	x = -1;
	printf("%s. @%s (%s.):", summary->zone, addrbuf, summary->ns);
	for (i = 0; i < sizeof(opts)/sizeof(opts[0]); i++) {
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		if (opts[i].what != 0 && (opts[i].what & what) == 0)
			continue;
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		if (summary->results[i][0] == 0)
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			strlcpy(summary->results[i], "skipped", 100);
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		if (strcmp(opts[i].name, "do") == 0)
			x = i;
		if (strcmp(opts[i].name, "ednstcp") == 0 && x != -1) {
			printf(" signed=%s", summary->results[x]);
			if (summary->seenrrsig)
				printf(",yes");
		}
		printf(" %s=%s", opts[i].name, summary->results[i]);
	}
	printf("\n");
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	freesummary(summary);
}

static void
report(struct summary *summary) {

	/*
	 * Have all the tests completed?
	 */
	summary->tests--;
	if (summary->tests)
		return;

	/*
	 * If we are cross linked record the lookup details on the other
	 * structure.
	 */
	if (summary->xlink) {
		if (summary->nodataa) {
			summary->xlink->nodataa = 1;
			summary->done = 1;
		}
		if (summary->nodataaaaa) {
			summary->xlink->nodataaaaa = 1;
			summary->done = 1;
		}
		if (summary->nxdomaina) {
			summary->xlink->nxdomaina = 1;
			summary->done = 1;
		}
		if (summary->nxdomainaaaa) {
			summary->xlink->nxdomainaaaa = 1;
			summary->done = 1;
		}

		/*
		 * Remove the cross link.
		 */
		summary->xlink->xlink = NULL;
		summary->xlink = NULL;
		if (summary->done) {
			freesummary(summary);
			goto print_deferred;
		}
	}

	if (inorder && PREV(summary, link)) {
		summary->deferred = 1;
		return;
	}
	printandfree(summary);

 print_deferred:
	while ((summary = HEAD(summaries)) && summary->deferred)
		printandfree(summary);
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}

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/*
 * Free a work item and unlink.
 */
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static void
freeitem(struct workitem * item) {
	report(item->summary);
	if (item->tcpfd != 0) {
		FD_CLR(item->tcpfd, &rfds);
		FD_CLR(item->tcpfd, &wfds);
		rhandlers[item->tcpfd] = NULL;
		whandlers[item->tcpfd] = NULL;
		close(item->tcpfd);
	}
	if (item->outstanding)
		outstanding--;
	if (LINKED(item, link))
		UNLINK(work, item, link);
	if (LINKED(item, rlink))
		UNLINK(reading, item, rlink);
	if (LINKED(item, clink))
		UNLINK(connecting, item, clink);
	if (LINKED(item, idlink))
		UNLINK(ids[item->id], item, idlink);
	free(item);
}

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/*
 * Add a tag to the report.
 */
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static void
addtag(struct workitem *item, char *tag) {
	char *result = item->summary->results[item->test];
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	if (result[0]) strlcat(result, ",", 100);
	strlcat(result, tag, 100);
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}

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/*
 * Resend a UDP request.
 */
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static void
resend(struct workitem *item) {
	int n, fd = -1;

	switch (item->summary->storage.ss_family) {
	case AF_INET:
		fd = udp4;
		break;
	case AF_INET6:
		fd = udp6;
		break;
	}

	if (fd == -1) {
		addtag(item, "skipped");
		freeitem(item);
		return;
	}

	if (outstanding > maxoutstanding) {
		gettimeofday(&item->when, NULL);
		item->when.tv_sec += 1;
		UNLINK(work, item, link);
		APPEND(work, item, link);
		return;
	}

	n = sendto(fd, item->buf, item->buflen, 0,
		   (struct sockaddr *)&item->summary->storage,
		   item->summary->storage.ss_len);
	if (n > 0) {
		if (debug)
			printf("resend %s rdlen=%u udpsize=%u flags=%04x "
			       "version=%u tcp=%u ignore=%u id=%u\n",
			       opts[item->test].name, opts[item->test].rdlen,
			       opts[item->test].udpsize, opts[item->test].flags,
			       opts[item->test].version, opts[item->test].tcp,
			       opts[item->test].ignore, item->id);
		if (!item->outstanding++)
			outstanding++;
		gettimeofday(&item->when, NULL);
		item->when.tv_sec += 1;
		item->sends++;
		UNLINK(work, item, link);
		APPEND(work, item, link);
	} else {
		addtag(item, "failed");
		freeitem(item);
	}
}

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/*
 * Start a individual test.
 */
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static void
dotest(struct workitem *item) {
	unsigned char *cp;
	unsigned int ttl;
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	int n, fd, id, tries = 0, opcode;
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	switch (item->summary->storage.ss_family) {
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	case AF_INET:
		fd = udp4;
		break;
	case AF_INET6:
		fd = udp6;
		break;
	}

	if (fd == -1) {
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		addtag(item, "skipped");
		freeitem(item);
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		return;
	}
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	/*
	 * res_mkquery only really knows about QUERY but it is useful
	 * for initalising the header when the opcode isn't QUERY.
	 */
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	opcode = opts[item->test].opcode;
	switch (opcode) {
	case 0: break;
	default:
		opcode = ns_o_query;
	}

	n = res_mkquery(opcode, item->summary->zone, ns_c_in,
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			opts[item->test].type, NULL, 0, NULL,
			item->buf, sizeof(item->buf));
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	/* fixup opcode? */
	if (n > 0 && opts[item->test].opcode != opcode) {
		item->buf[2] &= 0x17;
		item->buf[2] |= (opts[item->test].opcode & 0x0f) << 3;
		/* Zero question section. */
		if (opts[item->test].opcode == 15)
			item->buf[4] = item->buf[5] = 0;
	}
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	/*
	 * Set DNS flags as specified by test.
	 */
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	if (opts[item->test].tc)
		item->buf[2] |= 0x2;	/* set tc */
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	if (opts[item->test].rd)
		item->buf[2] |= 0x1;	/* set rd */
	else
		item->buf[2] &= ~0x1;	/* clear rd */
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	if (opts[item->test].ra)
		item->buf[3] |= 0x80;	/* set ra */
	if (opts[item->test].z)
		item->buf[3] |= 0x40;	/* set z */
	if (opts[item->test].ad)
		item->buf[3] |= 0x20;	/* set ad */
	if (opts[item->test].cd)
		item->buf[3] |= 0x10;	/* set cd */
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	if (n > 0) {
		char name[1024];
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		/*
		 * Make zone canonical.
		 */
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		dn_expand(item->buf, item->buf + n, item->buf + 12,
			  name, sizeof(name));
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		strlcpy(item->summary->zone, name,
			sizeof(item->summary->zone));
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	}
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	/*
	 * Add OPT record if required by test.
	 */
	if (n > 0 && opts[item->test].udpsize > 0 &&
	    11 + opts[item->test].rdlen < 512 - n) {
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		cp = item->buf + n;
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		*cp++ = 0;				/* name */
		ns_put16(ns_t_opt, cp);			/* type */
		cp += 2;
		ns_put16(opts[item->test].udpsize, cp);	/* class */
		cp += 2;
		ttl = (opts[item->test].version << 16) |
		      opts[item->test].flags;
		ns_put32(ttl, cp);			/* ttl */
		cp += 4;
		ns_put16(opts[item->test].rdlen, cp);	/* rdlen */
		cp += 2;
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		memcpy(cp, opts[item->test].rdata, opts[item->test].rdlen);
		cp += opts[item->test].rdlen;
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		item->buf[11] = 1;			/* adcount */
		n = cp - item->buf;			/* total length */
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	}

	if (n > 0) {
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		/*
		 * Adjust id if it clashes with a outstanding request.
		 */
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		id = item->buf[0] << 8 | item->buf[1];

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		while (!checkid(&item->summary->storage, id) &&
		       tries++ < 0xffff)
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			id = (id + 1) & 0xffff;
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		if (tries == 0xffff) {
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			addtag(item, "skipped");
			freeitem(item);
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			return;
		}
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		item->buf[0] = id >> 8;
		item->buf[1] = id & 0xff;
		item->id = id;
		item->buflen = n;

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		if (opts[item->test].tcp) {
			connecttoserver(item);
			return;
		}

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		/*
		 * If there is too much outstanding work queue this item.
		 */
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		if (outstanding > maxoutstanding) {
			gettimeofday(&item->when, NULL);
			item->when.tv_sec += 1;
			APPEND(work, item, link);
			APPEND(ids[item->id], item, idlink);
			return;
		}

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		n = sendto(fd, item->buf, item->buflen, 0,
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			   (struct sockaddr *)&item->summary->storage,
			   item->summary->storage.ss_len);
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	}

	if (n > 0) {
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		if (debug)
			printf("%s rdlen=%u udpsize=%u flags=%04x version=%u "
			       "tcp=%u ignore=%u id=%u\n",
			       opts[item->test].name, opts[item->test].rdlen,
			       opts[item->test].udpsize, opts[item->test].flags,
			       opts[item->test].version, opts[item->test].tcp,
			       opts[item->test].ignore, item->id);
		if (!item->outstanding++)
			outstanding++;
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		gettimeofday(&item->when, NULL);
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		item->when.tv_sec += 1;
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		item->sends = 1;
		APPEND(work, item, link);
		APPEND(ids[item->id], item, idlink);
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	} else {
		addtag(item, "failed");
		freeitem(item);
	}
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}

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/*
 * Start a series of tests.
 */
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static void
check(char *zone, char *ns, char *address) {
	size_t i;
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	int fd;
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	struct in_addr addr;
	struct in6_addr addr6;
	struct sockaddr_storage storage;
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	struct summary *summary;
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	memset(&storage, 0, sizeof(storage));
	if (inet_pton(AF_INET6, address, &addr6) == 1) {
		struct sockaddr_in6 *s = (struct sockaddr_in6 *)&storage;
		s->sin6_len = sizeof(struct sockaddr_in6);
		s->sin6_family = AF_INET6;
		s->sin6_port = htons(53);
		s->sin6_addr = addr6;
		fd = udp6;
	} else if (inet_pton(AF_INET, address, &addr) == 1) {
		struct sockaddr_in *s = (struct sockaddr_in *)&storage;
		s->sin_len = sizeof(struct sockaddr_in);
		s->sin_family = AF_INET;
		s->sin_port = htons(53);
		s->sin_addr = addr;
		fd = udp4;
	} else
		return;

	if (fd == -1)
		return;

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	summary = calloc(1, sizeof(*summary));
	if (summary == NULL)
		return;
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	APPEND(summaries, summary, link);
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	summary->storage = storage;
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	ns_makecanon(zone, summary->zone, sizeof(summary->zone));
	i = strlen(summary->zone);
	if (i) summary->zone[i-1] = 0;
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	ns_makecanon(ns, summary->ns, sizeof(summary->ns));
	i = strlen(summary->ns);
	if (i) summary->ns[i-1] = 0;
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	for (i = 0; i < sizeof(opts)/sizeof(opts[0]); i++) {
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		struct workitem *item;
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		if (opts[i].what != 0 && (opts[i].what & what) == 0)
			continue;
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		item = calloc(1, sizeof(*item));
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		if (item == NULL) {
			summary->tests++;
			report(summary);
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			break;
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		}
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		summary->tests++;
		item->summary = summary;
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		item->test = i;
		dotest(item);
	}
}

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static char *
rcodetext(int code) {
	static char buf[64];
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	switch(code) {
	case 0: return("noerror");
	case 1: return("formerr");
	case 2: return("servfail");
	case 3: return("nxdomain");
	case 4: return("notimpl");
	case 5: return("refused");
	case 6: return("yxdomain");
	case 7: return("yxrrset");
	case 8: return("nxrrset");
	case 9: return("notauth");
	case 10: return("notzone");
	case 16: return("badvers");
	case 23: return("badcookie");
	default:
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		snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "rcode%u", code);
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		return (buf);
	}
}

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/*
 * Start a lookup using the recursive server(s).
 */
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static void
dolookup(struct workitem *item, int type) {
	char name[1024];
	int n, fd = -1;

	item->summary->tests++;
	item->summary->type = item->type = type;

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	if (servers[item->test].sin.sin_family == AF_INET)
		memcpy(&item->summary->storage, &servers[item->test].sin,
		       sizeof(servers[item->test].sin));
	else
		memcpy(&item->summary->storage, &servers[0].sin6,
		       sizeof(servers[item->test].sin6));

	switch (item->summary->storage.ss_family) {
	case AF_INET:
		fd = udp4;
		break;
	case AF_INET6:
		fd = udp6;
		break;
	}

	if (fd == -1) {
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		if (++item->test < nservers)
			goto again;
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		addtag(item, "skipped");
		freeitem(item);
		return;
	}
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	if (type == ns_t_ns)
		n = res_mkquery(ns_o_query, item->summary->zone, ns_c_in,
				type, NULL, 0, NULL,
				item->buf, sizeof(item->buf));
	else
		n = res_mkquery(ns_o_query, item->summary->ns, ns_c_in,
				type, NULL, 0, NULL,
				item->buf, sizeof(item->buf));
	if (n > 0) {
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		int id, tries = 0;
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		/*
		 * Make name canonical.
		 */
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		dn_expand(item->buf, item->buf + n, item->buf + 12,
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			  name, sizeof(name));

		switch (type) {
		case ns_t_ns:
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			strlcpy(item->summary->zone, name,
				sizeof(item->summary->zone));
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			break;
		case ns_t_a:
		case ns_t_aaaa:
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			strlcpy(item->summary->ns, name,
				sizeof(item->summary->zone));
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			break;
		}

		item->buf[2] |= 0x1;	/* set rd */
		id = item->buf[0] << 8 | item->buf[1];
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		while (!checkid(&item->summary->storage, id) &&
		       tries++ < 0xffff)
			id = (id + 1) & 0xffff;
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		if (tries == 0xffff) {
			addtag(item, "skipped");
			freeitem(item);
			return;
		}

		item->buf[0] = id >> 8;
		item->buf[1] = id & 0xff;
		item->id = id;
		item->buflen = n;
		if (outstanding > maxoutstanding) {
			gettimeofday(&item->when, NULL);
			item->when.tv_sec += 1;
			APPEND(work, item, link);
			APPEND(ids[item->id], item, idlink);
			return;
		}
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		n = sendto(fd, item->buf, item->buflen, 0,
			   (struct sockaddr *)&item->summary->storage,
			   item->summary->storage.ss_len);
	}
	if (n > 0) {
		if (debug)
			printf("lookup %u id=%u\n", item->type, item->id);
		if (!item->outstanding++)
			outstanding++;
		gettimeofday(&item->when, NULL);
		item->when.tv_sec += 1;
		item->sends++;
		APPEND(work, item, link);
		APPEND(ids[item->id], item, idlink);
	} else {
		addtag(item, "skipped");
		freeitem(item);
	}
}

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/*
 * Start a A lookup.
 */
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static struct summary *
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lookupa(char *zone, char *ns, struct summary *parent) {
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	struct summary *summary;
	struct workitem *item;
	unsigned int i;

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	if (ipv6only)
		return (NULL);

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	summary = calloc(1, sizeof(*summary));
	if (summary == NULL)
		return (NULL);
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	if (parent)
		INSERTBEFORE(summaries, parent, summary, link);
	else
		APPEND(summaries, summary, link);
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	ns_makecanon(zone, summary->zone, sizeof(summary->zone));
	i = strlen(summary->zone);
	if (i) summary->zone[i-1] = 0;

	ns_makecanon(ns, summary->ns, sizeof(summary->ns));
	i = strlen(summary->ns);
	if (i) summary->ns[i-1] = 0;

	item = calloc(1, sizeof(*item));
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	if (item == NULL) {
		freesummary(summary);
		while ((summary = HEAD(summaries)) && summary->deferred)
			printandfree(summary);
	}
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	item->summary = summary;
	dolookup(item, ns_t_a);
	return (summary);
}

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/*
 * Start a AAAA lookup.
 */
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static struct summary *
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lookupaaaa(char *zone, char *ns, struct summary *parent) {
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	struct summary *summary;
	struct workitem *item;
	unsigned int i;

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	if (ipv6only)
		return (NULL);

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	summary = calloc(1, sizeof(*summary));
	if (summary == NULL)
		return (NULL);
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	if (parent)
		INSERTBEFORE(summaries, parent, summary, link);
	else
		APPEND(summaries, summary, link);
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	ns_makecanon(zone, summary->zone, sizeof(summary->zone));
	i = strlen(summary->zone);
	if (i) summary->zone[i-1] = 0;

	ns_makecanon(ns, summary->ns, sizeof(summary->ns));
	i = strlen(summary->ns);
	if (i) summary->ns[i-1] = 0;

	item = calloc(1, sizeof(*item));
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	if (item == NULL) {
		freesummary(summary);
		while ((summary = HEAD(summaries)) && summary->deferred)
			printandfree(summary);
	}
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	item->summary = summary;
	dolookup(item, ns_t_aaaa);
	return (summary);
}

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/*
 * Start a NS lookup.
 */
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static void
lookupns(char *zone) {
	struct summary *summary;
	struct workitem *item;
	unsigned int i;

	summary = calloc(1, sizeof(*summary));
	if (summary == NULL)
		return;
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	APPEND(summaries, summary, link);
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	ns_makecanon(zone, summary->zone, sizeof(summary->zone));
	i = strlen(summary->zone);
	if (i) summary->zone[i-1] = 0;
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	item = calloc(1, sizeof(*item));
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	if (item == NULL) {
		freesummary(summary);
		while ((summary = HEAD(summaries)) && summary->deferred)
			printandfree(summary);
	}
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	item->summary = summary;
	dolookup(item, ns_t_ns);
}

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/*
 * Process a recieved response.
 */
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static void
process(struct workitem *item, unsigned char *buf, int n) {
	char name[1024], ns[1024];
	unsigned int i, id, qr, aa, tc, rd, ra, z, ad, cd;
	unsigned int qrcount, ancount, aucount, adcount;
	unsigned int opcode, rcode;
	unsigned int type, ednssize = 0, class, ednsttl = 0, ttl, rdlen;
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	unsigned char *cp, *eom;
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	int seenopt = 0, seensoa = 0, seenrrsig = 0;
	int seennsid = 0, seenecs = 0, seenexpire = 0, seencookie = 0;
	int seenecho = 0;
	char addrbuf[64];
	int ok = 1;

	/* process message header */

	id = buf[0] << 8| buf[1];
	qr = (buf[2] >> 7) & 0x1;
	opcode = (buf[2] >> 3) & 0xf;
	aa = (buf[2] >> 2) & 0x1;
	tc = (buf[2] >> 1) & 0x1;
	rd = buf[2] & 0x1;
	ra = (buf[3] >> 7) & 0x1;
	z = (buf[3] >> 6) & 0x1;
	ad = (buf[3] >> 5) & 0x1;
	cd = (buf[3] >> 4) & 0x1;
	rcode = buf[3] & 0xf;
	qrcount = buf[4] << 8 | buf[5];
	ancount = buf[6] << 8 | buf[7];
	aucount = buf[8] << 8 | buf[9];
	adcount = buf[10] << 8 | buf[11];

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	if (tc && item->tcpfd == 0 &&
	    (item->summary->type || !opts[item->test].ignore)) {
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		if (LINKED(item, link))
			UNLINK(work, item, link);
		connecttoserver(item);
		return;
	}

	/* process message body */

	if (item->type == ns_t_a || item->type == ns_t_aaaa)
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		strlcpy(ns, item->summary->ns, sizeof(ns));
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	cp = buf + 12;
	eom = buf + n;
	for (i = 0; i < qrcount; i++) {
		n = dn_expand(buf, eom, cp, name, sizeof(name));
		if (n < 0 || (eom - cp) < n)
			goto err;
		cp += n;
		if ((eom - cp) < 4)
			goto err;
		type = ns_get16(cp);
		cp += 2;
		class = ns_get16(cp);
		cp += 2;
		if (debug)
			printf("QR: %s./%u/%u\n", name, type, class);

		/*
		 * No address / NS records?
		 */
		if (item->type == ns_t_a && type == ns_t_a &&
		    strcasecmp(item->summary->ns, name) == 0 &&
		    rcode == 0 && ancount == 0) {
			item->summary->nodataa = 1;
		}
		if (item->type == ns_t_aaaa && type == ns_t_aaaa &&
		    strcasecmp(item->summary->ns, name) == 0 &&
		    rcode == 0 && ancount == 0) {
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			item->summary->nodataaaaa = 1;
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		}
		if (item->type == ns_t_ns && type == ns_t_ns &&
		    strcasecmp(item->summary->zone, name) == 0 &&
		    rcode == 0 && ancount == 0)
			item->summary->done = 1;

		/*
		 * NXDOMAIN?
		 */
		if (item->type == ns_t_a && type == ns_t_a &&
		    strcasecmp(item->summary->ns, name) == 0 &&
		    rcode == 3 && ancount == 0)
			item->summary->nxdomaina = 1;
		if (item->type == ns_t_aaaa && type == ns_t_aaaa &&
		    strcasecmp(item->summary->ns, name) == 0 &&
		    rcode == 3 && ancount == 0)
			item->summary->nxdomainaaaa = 1;
		if (item->type == ns_t_ns && type == ns_t_ns &&
		    strcasecmp(item->summary->zone, name) == 0 &&
		    rcode == 3 && ancount == 0)
			item->summary->nxdomain = 1;
	}

	for (i = 0; i < ancount; i++) {
		n = dn_expand(buf, eom, cp, name, sizeof(name));
		if (n < 0 || (eom - cp) < n)
			goto err;
		cp += n;
		if ((eom - cp) < 8)
			goto err;
		type = ns_get16(cp);
		cp += 2;
		class = ns_get16(cp);
		cp += 2;
		ttl = ns_get32(cp);
		cp += 4;
		rdlen = ns_get16(cp);
		cp += 2;
		if ((eom - cp) < rdlen)
			goto err;
		if ((item->type == ns_t_a || item->type == ns_t_aaaa) &&
		    type == ns_t_cname && strcasecmp(ns, name) == 0) {
			n = dn_expand(buf, eom, cp, ns, sizeof(ns));
			if (n != rdlen)
				goto err;
		}
		if (item->type == ns_t_a && type == ns_t_a &&
		    strcasecmp(ns, name) == 0)
		{
			if (rdlen != 4)
				goto err;
			inet_ntop(AF_INET, cp, addrbuf, sizeof(addrbuf));
			check(item->summary->zone, item->summary->ns, addrbuf);
			item->summary->done = 1;
		}
		if (item->type == ns_t_aaaa && type == ns_t_aaaa &&
		    strcasecmp(ns, name) == 0)
		{
			if (rdlen != 16)
				goto err;
			inet_ntop(AF_INET6, cp, addrbuf, sizeof(addrbuf));
			check(item->summary->zone