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.\" Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2003-2009, 2011, 2013-2018 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
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.\" 
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.\" This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public
.\" License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this
.\" file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/.
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.\"
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.hy 0
.ad l
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'\" t
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.\"     Title: named
.\"    Author: 
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.\" Generator: DocBook XSL Stylesheets v1.78.1 <http://docbook.sf.net/>
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.\"      Date: 2014-02-19
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.\"    Manual: BIND9
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.\"    Source: ISC
.\"  Language: English
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.\"
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.TH "NAMED" "8" "2014\-02\-19" "ISC" "BIND9"
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.\" * Define some portability stuff
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673
.\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html
.\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
.ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq
.el       .ds Aq '
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.\" * set default formatting
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
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.\" disable hyphenation
.nh
.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
.ad l
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.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
.\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE *
.\" -----------------------------------------------------------------
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.SH "NAME"
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named \- Internet domain name server
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.SH "SYNOPSIS"
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.HP \w'\fBnamed\fR\ 'u
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\fBnamed\fR [[\fB\-4\fR] | [\fB\-6\fR]] [\fB\-c\ \fR\fB\fIconfig\-file\fR\fR] [\fB\-d\ \fR\fB\fIdebug\-level\fR\fR] [\fB\-D\ \fR\fB\fIstring\fR\fR] [\fB\-E\ \fR\fB\fIengine\-name\fR\fR] [\fB\-f\fR] [\fB\-g\fR] [\fB\-L\ \fR\fB\fIlogfile\fR\fR] [\fB\-M\ \fR\fB\fIoption\fR\fR] [\fB\-m\ \fR\fB\fIflag\fR\fR] [\fB\-n\ \fR\fB\fI#cpus\fR\fR] [\fB\-p\ \fR\fB\fIport\fR\fR] [\fB\-s\fR] [\fB\-S\ \fR\fB\fI#max\-socks\fR\fR] [\fB\-t\ \fR\fB\fIdirectory\fR\fR] [\fB\-U\ \fR\fB\fI#listeners\fR\fR] [\fB\-u\ \fR\fB\fIuser\fR\fR] [\fB\-v\fR] [\fB\-V\fR] [\fB\-X\ \fR\fB\fIlock\-file\fR\fR] [\fB\-x\ \fR\fB\fIcache\-file\fR\fR]
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.SH "DESCRIPTION"
.PP
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\fBnamed\fR
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is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the BIND 9 distribution from ISC\&. For more information on the DNS, see RFCs 1033, 1034, and 1035\&.
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.PP
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When invoked without arguments,
\fBnamed\fR
will read the default configuration file
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/etc/named\&.conf, read any initial data, and listen for queries\&.
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.SH "OPTIONS"
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.PP
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\-4
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.RS 4
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Use IPv4 only even if the host machine is capable of IPv6\&.
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\fB\-4\fR
and
\fB\-6\fR
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are mutually exclusive\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-6
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.RS 4
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Use IPv6 only even if the host machine is capable of IPv4\&.
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\fB\-4\fR
and
\fB\-6\fR
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are mutually exclusive\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-c \fIconfig\-file\fR
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.RS 4
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Use
\fIconfig\-file\fR
as the configuration file instead of the default,
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/etc/named\&.conf\&. To ensure that reloading the configuration file continues to work after the server has changed its working directory due to to a possible
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\fBdirectory\fR
option in the configuration file,
\fIconfig\-file\fR
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should be an absolute pathname\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-d \fIdebug\-level\fR
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.RS 4
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Set the daemon\*(Aqs debug level to
\fIdebug\-level\fR\&. Debugging traces from
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\fBnamed\fR
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become more verbose as the debug level increases\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-D \fIstring\fR
.RS 4
Specifies a string that is used to identify a instance of
\fBnamed\fR
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in a process listing\&. The contents of
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\fIstring\fR
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are not examined\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-E \fIengine\-name\fR
.RS 4
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When applicable, specifies the hardware to use for cryptographic operations, such as a secure key store used for signing\&.
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.sp
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When BIND is built with OpenSSL PKCS#11 support, this defaults to the string "pkcs11", which identifies an OpenSSL engine that can drive a cryptographic accelerator or hardware service module\&. When BIND is built with native PKCS#11 cryptography (\-\-enable\-native\-pkcs11), it defaults to the path of the PKCS#11 provider library specified via "\-\-with\-pkcs11"\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-f
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.RS 4
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Run the server in the foreground (i\&.e\&. do not daemonize)\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-g
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.RS 4
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Run the server in the foreground and force all logging to
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stderr\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-L \fIlogfile\fR
.RS 4
Log to the file
\fBlogfile\fR
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by default instead of the system log\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-M \fIoption\fR
.RS 4
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Sets the default memory context options\&. If set to
\fIexternal\fR, this causes the internal memory manager to be bypassed in favor of system\-provided memory allocation functions\&. If set to
\fIfill\fR, blocks of memory will be filled with tag values when allocated or freed, to assist debugging of memory problems\&. (\fInofill\fR
disables this behavior, and is the default unless
\fBnamed\fR
has been compiled with developer options\&.)
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.RE
.PP
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\-m \fIflag\fR
.RS 4
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Turn on memory usage debugging flags\&. Possible flags are
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\fIusage\fR,
\fItrace\fR,
\fIrecord\fR,
\fIsize\fR, and
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\fImctx\fR\&. These correspond to the ISC_MEM_DEBUGXXXX flags described in
<isc/mem\&.h>\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-n \fI#cpus\fR
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.RS 4
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Create
\fI#cpus\fR
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worker threads to take advantage of multiple CPUs\&. If not specified,
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\fBnamed\fR
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will try to determine the number of CPUs present and create one thread per CPU\&. If it is unable to determine the number of CPUs, a single worker thread will be created\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-p \fIport\fR
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.RS 4
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Listen for queries on port
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\fIport\fR\&. If not specified, the default is port 53\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-s
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.RS 4
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Write memory usage statistics to
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stdout
on exit\&.
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.if n \{\
.sp
.\}
.RS 4
.it 1 an-trap
.nr an-no-space-flag 1
.nr an-break-flag 1
.br
.ps +1
\fBNote\fR
.ps -1
.br
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This option is mainly of interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed in a future release\&.
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.sp .5v
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.RE
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.RE
.PP
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\-S \fI#max\-socks\fR
.RS 4
Allow
\fBnamed\fR
to use up to
\fI#max\-socks\fR
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sockets\&. The default value is 4096 on systems built with default configuration options, and 21000 on systems built with "configure \-\-with\-tuning=large"\&.
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.if n \{\
.sp
.\}
.RS 4
.it 1 an-trap
.nr an-no-space-flag 1
.nr an-break-flag 1
.br
.ps +1
\fBWarning\fR
.ps -1
.br
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This option should be unnecessary for the vast majority of users\&. The use of this option could even be harmful because the specified value may exceed the limitation of the underlying system API\&. It is therefore set only when the default configuration causes exhaustion of file descriptors and the operational environment is known to support the specified number of sockets\&. Note also that the actual maximum number is normally a little fewer than the specified value because
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\fBnamed\fR
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reserves some file descriptors for its internal use\&.
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.sp .5v
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.RE
.RE
.PP
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\-t \fIdirectory\fR
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.RS 4
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Chroot to
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\fIdirectory\fR
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after processing the command line arguments, but before reading the configuration file\&.
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.if n \{\
.sp
.\}
.RS 4
.it 1 an-trap
.nr an-no-space-flag 1
.nr an-break-flag 1
.br
.ps +1
\fBWarning\fR
.ps -1
.br
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This option should be used in conjunction with the
\fB\-u\fR
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option, as chrooting a process running as root doesn\*(Aqt enhance security on most systems; the way
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\fBchroot(2)\fR
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is defined allows a process with root privileges to escape a chroot jail\&.
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.sp .5v
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.RE
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.RE
.PP
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\-U \fI#listeners\fR
.RS 4
Use
\fI#listeners\fR
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worker threads to listen for incoming UDP packets on each address\&. If not specified,
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\fBnamed\fR
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will calculate a default value based on the number of detected CPUs: 1 for 1 CPU, and the number of detected CPUs minus one for machines with more than 1 CPU\&. This cannot be increased to a value higher than the number of CPUs\&. If
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\fB\-n\fR
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has been set to a higher value than the number of detected CPUs, then
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\fB\-U\fR
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may be increased as high as that value, but no higher\&. On Windows, the number of UDP listeners is hardwired to 1 and this option has no effect\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-u \fIuser\fR
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.RS 4
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Setuid to
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\fIuser\fR
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after completing privileged operations, such as creating sockets that listen on privileged ports\&.
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.if n \{\
.sp
.\}
.RS 4
.it 1 an-trap
.nr an-no-space-flag 1
.nr an-break-flag 1
.br
.ps +1
\fBNote\fR
.ps -1
.br
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On Linux,
\fBnamed\fR
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uses the kernel\*(Aqs capability mechanism to drop all root privileges except the ability to
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\fBbind(2)\fR
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to a privileged port and set process resource limits\&. Unfortunately, this means that the
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\fB\-u\fR
option only works when
\fBnamed\fR
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is run on kernel 2\&.2\&.18 or later, or kernel 2\&.3\&.99\-pre3 or later, since previous kernels did not allow privileges to be retained after
\fBsetuid(2)\fR\&.
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.sp .5v
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.RE
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.RE
.PP
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\-v
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.RS 4
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Report the version number and exit\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-V
.RS 4
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Report the version number and build options, and exit\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-X \fIlock\-file\fR
.RS 4
Acquire a lock on the specified file at runtime; this helps to prevent duplicate
\fBnamed\fR
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instances from running simultaneously\&. Use of this option overrides the
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\fBlock\-file\fR
option in
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named\&.conf\&. If set to
none, the lock file check is disabled\&.
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.RE
.PP
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\-x \fIcache\-file\fR
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.RS 4
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Load data from
\fIcache\-file\fR
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into the cache of the default view\&.
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.if n \{\
.sp
.\}
.RS 4
.it 1 an-trap
.nr an-no-space-flag 1
.nr an-break-flag 1
.br
.ps +1
\fBWarning\fR
.ps -1
.br
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This option must not be used\&. It is only of interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed in a future release\&.
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.sp .5v
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.RE
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.RE
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.SH "SIGNALS"
.PP
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In routine operation, signals should not be used to control the nameserver;
\fBrndc\fR
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should be used instead\&.
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.PP
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SIGHUP
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.RS 4
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Force a reload of the server\&.
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.RE
.PP
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SIGINT, SIGTERM
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.RS 4
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Shut down the server\&.
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.RE
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.PP
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The result of sending any other signals to the server is undefined\&.
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.SH "CONFIGURATION"
.PP
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The
\fBnamed\fR
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configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here\&. A complete description is provided in the
BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual\&.
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.PP
\fBnamed\fR
inherits the
\fBumask\fR
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(file creation mode mask) from the parent process\&. If files created by
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\fBnamed\fR, such as journal files, need to have custom permissions, the
\fBumask\fR
should be set explicitly in the script used to start the
\fBnamed\fR
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process\&.
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.SH "FILES"
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.PP
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/etc/named\&.conf
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.RS 4
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The default configuration file\&.
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.RE
.PP
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/var/run/named/named\&.pid
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.RS 4
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The default process\-id file\&.
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.RE
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.SH "SEE ALSO"
.PP
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RFC 1033,
RFC 1034,
RFC 1035,
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\fBnamed-checkconf\fR(8),
\fBnamed-checkzone\fR(8),
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\fBrndc\fR(8),
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\fBnamed.conf\fR(5),
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BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual\&.
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.SH "AUTHOR"
.PP
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\fBInternet Systems Consortium, Inc\&.\fR
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