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<refentry>
  <refentryinfo>
    <date>June 30, 2000</date>
  </refentryinfo>

  <refmeta>
    <refentrytitle><application>dnssec-signzone</application></refentrytitle>
    <manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
    <refmiscinfo>BIND9</refmiscinfo>
  </refmeta>

  <refnamediv>
    <refname><application>dnssec-signzone</application></refname>
    <refpurpose>DNSSEC zone signing tool</refpurpose>
  </refnamediv>

  <refsynopsisdiv>
    <cmdsynopsis>
      <command>dnssec-signzone</command>
      <arg><option>-a</option></arg>
      <arg><option>-c <replaceable class="parameter">class</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-d <replaceable class="parameter">directory</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-e <replaceable class="parameter">end-time</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-f <replaceable class="parameter">output-file</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-g</option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-h</option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-k <replaceable class="parameter">key</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-l <replaceable class="parameter">domain</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-i <replaceable class="parameter">interval</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-j <replaceable class="parameter">jitter</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-n <replaceable class="parameter">nthreads</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-o <replaceable class="parameter">origin</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-p</option></arg>
      <arg><option>-r <replaceable class="parameter">randomdev</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-s <replaceable class="parameter">start-time</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-t</option></arg>
      <arg><option>-v <replaceable class="parameter">level</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-z</option></arg>
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      <arg choice="req">zonefile</arg>
      <arg rep="repeat">key</arg>
    </cmdsynopsis>
  </refsynopsisdiv>

  <refsect1>
    <title>DESCRIPTION</title>
    <para>
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        <command>dnssec-signzone</command> signs a zone.  It generates
	NSEC and RRSIG records and produces a signed version of the
	zone. The security status of delegations from the signed zone
	(that is, whether the child zones are secure or not) is
	determined by the presence or absence of a
	<filename>keyset</filename> file for each child zone.
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    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>OPTIONS</title>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-a</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	      Verify all generated signatures.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-c <replaceable class="parameter">class</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       Specifies the DNS class of the zone.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-k <replaceable class="parameter">key</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any
	       key flags.  This option may be specified multiple times.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-l <replaceable class="parameter">domain</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
		Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets.
		The domain is appended to the name of the records.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-d <replaceable class="parameter">directory</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	       Look for <filename>keyset</filename> files in
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	       <option>directory</option> as the directory 
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-g</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
		Generate DS records for child zones from keyset files.
		Existing DS records will be removed.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-s <replaceable class="parameter">start-time</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	       Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records
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	       become valid.  This can be either an absolute or relative
	       time.  An absolute start time is indicated by a number
	       in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation; 20000530144500 denotes
	       14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000.  A relative start time is
	       indicated by +N, which is N seconds from the current time.
	       If no <option>start-time</option> is specified, the current
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	       time minus 1 hour (to allow for clock skew) is used.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-e <replaceable class="parameter">end-time</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	       Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records
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	       expire.  As with <option>start-time</option>, an absolute
	       time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation.  A time relative
	       to the start time is indicated with +N, which is N seconds from
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	       the start time.  A time relative to the current time is
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	       indicated with now+N.  If no <option>end-time</option> is
	       specified, 30 days from the start time is used as a default.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-f <replaceable class="parameter">output-file</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       The name of the output file containing the signed zone.  The
	       default is to append <filename>.signed</filename> to the
	       input file.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-h</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
	       <command>dnssec-signzone</command>.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-i <replaceable class="parameter">interval</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       When a previously signed zone is passed as input, records
	       may be resigned.  The <option>interval</option> option
	       specifies the cycle interval as an offset from the current
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	       time (in seconds).  If a RRSIG record expires after the
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	       cycle interval, it is retained.  Otherwise, it is considered
	       to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	       The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference
	       between the signature end and start times.  So if neither
	       <option>end-time</option> or <option>start-time</option>
	       are specified, <command>dnssec-signzone</command> generates
	       signatures that are valid for 30 days, with a cycle
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	       interval of 7.5 days.  Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records
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	       are due to expire in less than 7.5 days, they would be
	       replaced.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime, all
	       RRSIG records issued at the time of signing expires
	       simultaneously.  If the zone is incrementally signed, i.e.
	       a previously signed zone is passed as input to the signer,
	       all expired signatures has to be regenerated at about the
	       same time.  The <option>jitter</option> option specifies a
	       jitter window that will be used to randomize the signature
	       expire time, thus spreading incremental signature
	       regeneration over time.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	       Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits
	       validators and servers by spreading out cache expiration,
	       i.e. if large numbers of RRSIGs don't expire at the same time
	       from all caches there will be less congestion than if all
	       validators need to refetch at mostly the same time.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-n <replaceable class="parameter">ncpus</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       Specifies the number of threads to use.  By default, one
	       thread is started for each detected CPU.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-o <replaceable class="parameter">origin</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       The zone origin.  If not specified, the name of the zone file
	       is assumed to be the origin.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-p</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone.  This is faster,
	       but less secure, than using real random data.  This option
	       may be useful when signing large zones or when the entropy
	       source is limited.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-r <replaceable class="parameter">randomdev</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       Specifies the source of randomness.  If the operating
	       system does not provide a <filename>/dev/random</filename>
	       or equivalent device, the default source of randomness
	       is keyboard input.  <filename>randomdev</filename> specifies
	       the name of a character device or file containing random
	       data to be used instead of the default.  The special value
	       <filename>keyboard</filename> indicates that keyboard
	       input should be used.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-t</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       Print statistics at completion.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-v <replaceable class="parameter">level</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       Sets the debugging level.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-z</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>zonefile</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       The file containing the zone to be signed.
	       Sets the debugging level.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>key</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	       The keys used to sign the zone.  If no keys are specified, the
	       default all zone keys that have private key files in the
	       current directory.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

    </variablelist>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>EXAMPLE</title>
    <para>
        The following command signs the <userinput>example.com</userinput>
	zone with the DSA key generated in the <command>dnssec-keygen</command>
	man page.  The zone's keys must be in the zone.  If there are
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	<filename>keyset</filename> files associated with child zones,
	they must be in the current directory.
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	<userinput>example.com</userinput>, the following command would be
	issued:
    </para>
    <para>
        <userinput>dnssec-signzone -o example.com db.example.com Kexample.com.+003+26160</userinput>
    </para>
    <para>
        The command would print a string of the form:
    </para>
    <para>
        In this example, <command>dnssec-signzone</command> creates
	the file <filename>db.example.com.signed</filename>.  This file
	should be referenced in a zone statement in a
	<filename>named.conf</filename> file.
    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>SEE ALSO</title>
    <para>
      <citerefentry>
        <refentrytitle>dnssec-keygen</refentrytitle>
	<manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
      </citerefentry>,
      <citetitle>BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual</citetitle>,
      <citetitle>RFC 2535</citetitle>.
    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>AUTHOR</title>
    <para>
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        <corpauthor>Internet Systems Consortium</corpauthor>
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    </para>
  </refsect1>

</refentry>

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