dnssec-keygen.docbook 18.3 KB
Newer Older
1 2
<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
               "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd"
3
	       [<!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">]>
Brian Wellington's avatar
Brian Wellington committed
4
<!--
Automatic Updater's avatar
Automatic Updater committed
5
 - Copyright (C) 2004, 2005, 2007-2009  Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
6
 - Copyright (C) 2000-2003  Internet Software Consortium.
Brian Wellington's avatar
Brian Wellington committed
7
 -
Automatic Updater's avatar
Automatic Updater committed
8
 - Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software for any
Brian Wellington's avatar
Brian Wellington committed
9 10 11
 - purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
 - copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
 -
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
 - THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ISC DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH
 - REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
 - AND FITNESS.  IN NO EVENT SHALL ISC BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT,
 - INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM
 - LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE
 - OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
 - PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
Brian Wellington's avatar
Brian Wellington committed
19
-->
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
20

21
<!-- $Id: dnssec-keygen.docbook,v 1.26 2009/08/28 21:47:02 each Exp $ -->
22
<refentry id="man.dnssec-keygen">
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
  <refentryinfo>
    <date>June 30, 2000</date>
  </refentryinfo>

  <refmeta>
    <refentrytitle><application>dnssec-keygen</application></refentrytitle>
    <manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
    <refmiscinfo>BIND9</refmiscinfo>
  </refmeta>

  <refnamediv>
    <refname><application>dnssec-keygen</application></refname>
    <refpurpose>DNSSEC key generation tool</refpurpose>
  </refnamediv>

38 39 40 41
  <docinfo>
    <copyright>
      <year>2004</year>
      <year>2005</year>
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
42
      <year>2007</year>
Automatic Updater's avatar
Automatic Updater committed
43
      <year>2008</year>
Automatic Updater's avatar
Automatic Updater committed
44
      <year>2009</year>
45 46 47 48 49 50 51
      <holder>Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")</holder>
    </copyright>
    <copyright>
      <year>2000</year>
      <year>2001</year>
      <year>2002</year>
      <year>2003</year>
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
52
      <holder>Internet Software Consortium.</holder>
53 54 55
    </copyright>
  </docinfo>

56 57 58
  <refsynopsisdiv>
    <cmdsynopsis>
      <command>dnssec-keygen</command>
59 60 61
      <arg><option>-a <replaceable class="parameter">algorithm</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg ><option>-b <replaceable class="parameter">keysize</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-n <replaceable class="parameter">nametype</replaceable></option></arg>
62 63 64
      <arg><option>-3</option></arg>
      <arg><option>-A <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-C</option></arg>
65
      <arg><option>-c <replaceable class="parameter">class</replaceable></option></arg>
66
      <arg><option>-D <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></option></arg>
67
      <arg><option>-e</option></arg>
68
      <arg><option>-f <replaceable class="parameter">flag</replaceable></option></arg>
69 70
      <arg><option>-g <replaceable class="parameter">generator</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-h</option></arg>
71
      <arg><option>-K <replaceable class="parameter">directory</replaceable></option></arg>
72
      <arg><option>-k</option></arg>
73
      <arg><option>-P <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></option></arg>
74
      <arg><option>-p <replaceable class="parameter">protocol</replaceable></option></arg>
75
      <arg><option>-R <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></option></arg>
76 77 78
      <arg><option>-r <replaceable class="parameter">randomdev</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-s <replaceable class="parameter">strength</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-t <replaceable class="parameter">type</replaceable></option></arg>
79
      <arg><option>-U <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></option></arg>
80
      <arg><option>-v <replaceable class="parameter">level</replaceable></option></arg>
81
      <arg><option>-z</option></arg>
82 83 84 85 86 87
      <arg choice="req">name</arg>
    </cmdsynopsis>
  </refsynopsisdiv>

  <refsect1>
    <title>DESCRIPTION</title>
88 89
    <para><command>dnssec-keygen</command>
      generates keys for DNSSEC (Secure DNS), as defined in RFC 2535
90
      and RFC 4034.  It can also generate keys for use with
91 92
      TSIG (Transaction Signatures) as defined in RFC 2845, or TKEY
      (Transaction Key) as defined in RFC 2930.
93
    </para>
94 95 96 97 98
    <para>
      The <option>name</option> of the key is specified on the command
      line.  For DNSSEC keys, this must match the name of the zone for
      which the key is being generated.
    </para>
99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>OPTIONS</title>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-a <replaceable class="parameter">algorithm</replaceable></term>
107 108
        <listitem>
          <para>
109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119
            Selects the cryptographic algorithm.  For DNSSEC keys, the value
            of <option>algorithm</option> must be one of RSAMD5, RSASHA1,
	    DSA, NSEC3RSASHA1, or NSEC3DSA.  For TSIG/TKEY, the value must
            be DH (Diffie Hellman), HMAC-MD5, HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-SHA224,
            HMAC-SHA256, HMAC-SHA384, or HMAC-SHA512.  These values are
            case insensitive.
          </para>
          <para>
            If no algorithm is specified, then RSASHA1 will be used by
            default, unless the <option>-3</option> option is specified,
            in which case NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used instead.
120 121 122
          </para>
          <para>
            Note 1: that for DNSSEC, RSASHA1 is a mandatory to implement
123 124
            algorithm, and DSA is recommended.  For TSIG, HMAC-MD5 is
	    mandatory.
125 126
          </para>
          <para>
127 128
            Note 2: DH, HMAC-MD5, and HMAC-SHA1 through HMAC-SHA512
            automatically set the -T KEY option.
129 130
          </para>
        </listitem>
131 132 133 134
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-b <replaceable class="parameter">keysize</replaceable></term>
135 136 137 138
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the number of bits in the key.  The choice of key
            size depends on the algorithm used.  RSAMD5 / RSASHA1 keys must be
139
            between 512 and 2048 bits.  Diffie Hellman keys must be between
140 141 142 143
            128 and 4096 bits.  DSA keys must be between 512 and 1024
            bits and an exact multiple of 64.  HMAC-MD5 keys must be
            between 1 and 512 bits.
          </para>
144
          <para>
145 146 147 148 149 150 151
            The key size does not need to be specified if using a default
            algorithm.  The default key size is 1024 bits for zone signing
            keys (ZSK's) and 2048 bits for key signing keys (KSK's,
            generated with <option>-f KSK</option>).  However, if an
            algorithm is explicitly specified with the <option>-a</option>,
            then there is no default key size, and the <option>-b</option>
            must be used.
152
          </para>
153
        </listitem>
154 155 156 157
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-n <replaceable class="parameter">nametype</replaceable></term>
158 159 160 161 162 163 164
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the owner type of the key.  The value of
            <option>nametype</option> must either be ZONE (for a DNSSEC
            zone key (KEY/DNSKEY)), HOST or ENTITY (for a key associated with
            a host (KEY)),
            USER (for a key associated with a user(KEY)) or OTHER (DNSKEY).
165 166
            These values are case insensitive.  Defaults to ZONE for DNSKEY
	    generation.
167 168
          </para>
        </listitem>
169 170
      </varlistentry>

171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-3</term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
	    Use an NSEC3-capable algorithm to generate a DNSSEC key.
            If this option is used and no algorithm is explicitly
            set on the command line, NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used by
            default.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-C</term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
	    Compatibility mode:  generates an old-style key, without
	    any metadata.  By default, <command>dnssec-keygen</command>
	    will include the key's creation date in the metadata stored
	    with the private key, and other dates may be set there as well
	    (publication date, activation date, etc).  Keys that include
	    this data may be incompatible with older versions of BIND; the
	    <option>-C</option> option suppresses them.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

198 199
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-c <replaceable class="parameter">class</replaceable></term>
200 201 202 203 204 205
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Indicates that the DNS record containing the key should have
            the specified class.  If not specified, class IN is used.
          </para>
        </listitem>
206 207 208 209
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-e</term>
210 211 212 213 214
        <listitem>
          <para>
            If generating an RSAMD5/RSASHA1 key, use a large exponent.
          </para>
        </listitem>
215 216
      </varlistentry>

217 218
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-f <replaceable class="parameter">flag</replaceable></term>
219 220 221
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Set the specified flag in the flag field of the KEY/DNSKEY record.
222
            The only recognized flags are KSK (Key Signing Key) and REVOKE.
223 224
          </para>
        </listitem>
225 226
      </varlistentry>

227 228
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-g <replaceable class="parameter">generator</replaceable></term>
229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236
        <listitem>
          <para>
            If generating a Diffie Hellman key, use this generator.
            Allowed values are 2 and 5.  If no generator
            is specified, a known prime from RFC 2539 will be used
            if possible; otherwise the default is 2.
          </para>
        </listitem>
237 238 239 240
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-h</term>
241 242 243 244 245 246
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
            <command>dnssec-keygen</command>.
          </para>
        </listitem>
247 248
      </varlistentry>

249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-K <replaceable class="parameter">directory</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the directory in which the key files are to be written.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

258 259
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-k</term>
260 261
        <listitem>
          <para>
262
            Deprecated in favor of -T KEY.
263 264
          </para>
        </listitem>
265 266
      </varlistentry>

267 268
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-p <replaceable class="parameter">protocol</replaceable></term>
269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the protocol value for the generated key.  The protocol
            is a number between 0 and 255.  The default is 3 (DNSSEC).
            Other possible values for this argument are listed in
            RFC 2535 and its successors.
          </para>
        </listitem>
277 278 279 280
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-r <replaceable class="parameter">randomdev</replaceable></term>
281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the source of randomness.  If the operating
            system does not provide a <filename>/dev/random</filename>
            or equivalent device, the default source of randomness
            is keyboard input.  <filename>randomdev</filename>
            specifies
            the name of a character device or file containing random
            data to be used instead of the default.  The special value
            <filename>keyboard</filename> indicates that keyboard
            input should be used.
          </para>
        </listitem>
294 295 296 297
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-s <replaceable class="parameter">strength</replaceable></term>
298 299 300 301 302 303 304
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the strength value of the key.  The strength is
            a number between 0 and 15, and currently has no defined
            purpose in DNSSEC.
          </para>
        </listitem>
305 306
      </varlistentry>

307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-T <replaceable class="parameter">rrtype</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the resource record type to use for the key.
            <option>rrtype</option> must be either DNSKEY or KEY.  The
            default is DNSKEY when using a DNSSEC algorithm, but it can be
            overridden to KEY for use with SIG(0).
          <para>
          </para>
            Using any TSIG algorithm (HMAC-* or DH) forces this option
            to KEY.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

323 324
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-t <replaceable class="parameter">type</replaceable></term>
325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Indicates the use of the key.  <option>type</option> must be
            one of AUTHCONF, NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or NOCONF.  The default
            is AUTHCONF.  AUTH refers to the ability to authenticate
            data, and CONF the ability to encrypt data.
          </para>
        </listitem>
333 334 335 336
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-v <replaceable class="parameter">level</replaceable></term>
337 338 339 340 341
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the debugging level.
          </para>
        </listitem>
342 343 344 345 346
      </varlistentry>

    </variablelist>
  </refsect1>

347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419
  <refsect1>
    <title>TIMING OPTIONS</title>

    <para>
      Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.
      If the argument begins with a '+' or '-', it is interpreted as
      an offset from the present time.  If such an offset is followed
      by one of the characters 'y', 'm', 'w', 'd', or 'h', then the
      offset is computed in years, months, weeks, days, or hours,
      respectively; otherwise it is computed in seconds.
    </para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-P <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the date on which a key is to be published to the zone.
            After that date, the key will be included in the zone but will
            not be used to sign it.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-A <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the date on which the key is to be activated.  After that
            date, the key will be included and the zone and used to sign
            it.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-R <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the date on which the key is to be revoked.  After that
            date, the key will be flagged as revoked.  It will be included
            in the zone and will be used to sign it.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-U <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the date on which the key is to be unpublished.  After that
            date, the key will no longer be included in the zone, but it
            may remain in the key repository.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-D <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the date on which the key is to be deleted.  After that
            date, the key can be removed from the key repository.
            NOTE: Keys are not currently deleted automatically; this field
            is included for informational purposes and for future
            development.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>
  </refsect1>


420 421 422
  <refsect1>
    <title>GENERATED KEYS</title>
    <para>
423 424 425 426
      When <command>dnssec-keygen</command> completes
      successfully,
      it prints a string of the form <filename>Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii</filename>
      to the standard output.  This is an identification string for
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
427
      the key it has generated.
428
    </para>
Brian Wellington's avatar
Brian Wellington committed
429 430
    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
431
        <para><filename>nnnn</filename> is the key name.
Brian Wellington's avatar
Brian Wellington committed
432 433 434
        </para>
      </listitem>
      <listitem>
435 436
        <para><filename>aaa</filename> is the numeric representation
          of the
Brian Wellington's avatar
Brian Wellington committed
437 438 439 440
          algorithm.
        </para>
      </listitem>
      <listitem>
441 442
        <para><filename>iiiii</filename> is the key identifier (or
          footprint).
Brian Wellington's avatar
Brian Wellington committed
443 444 445
        </para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
446
    <para><command>dnssec-keygen</command> 
447
      creates two files, with names based
448 449 450 451 452
      on the printed string.  <filename>Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.key</filename>
      contains the public key, and
      <filename>Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.private</filename> contains the
      private
      key.
453 454
    </para>
    <para>
455 456 457 458
      The <filename>.key</filename> file contains a DNS KEY record
      that
      can be inserted into a zone file (directly or with a $INCLUDE
      statement).
459 460
    </para>
    <para>
461 462
      The <filename>.private</filename> file contains
      algorithm-specific
463 464
      fields.  For obvious security reasons, this file does not have
      general read permission.
465 466
    </para>
    <para>
467
      Both <filename>.key</filename> and <filename>.private</filename>
468
      files are generated for symmetric encryption algorithms such as
469
      HMAC-MD5, even though the public and private key are equivalent.
470 471 472 473 474 475
    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>EXAMPLE</title>
    <para>
476 477 478
      To generate a 768-bit DSA key for the domain
      <userinput>example.com</userinput>, the following command would be
      issued:
479
    </para>
480
    <para><userinput>dnssec-keygen -a DSA -b 768 -n ZONE example.com</userinput>
481 482
    </para>
    <para>
483
      The command would print a string of the form:
484
    </para>
485
    <para><userinput>Kexample.com.+003+26160</userinput>
486 487
    </para>
    <para>
488 489 490
      In this example, <command>dnssec-keygen</command> creates
      the files <filename>Kexample.com.+003+26160.key</filename>
      and
491
      <filename>Kexample.com.+003+26160.private</filename>.
492 493 494 495 496
    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>SEE ALSO</title>
497 498
    <para><citerefentry>
        <refentrytitle>dnssec-signzone</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
499 500
      </citerefentry>,
      <citetitle>BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual</citetitle>,
501
      <citetitle>RFC 2539</citetitle>,
502
      <citetitle>RFC 2845</citetitle>,
503
      <citetitle>RFC 4033</citetitle>.
504 505 506 507 508
    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>AUTHOR</title>
509
    <para><corpauthor>Internet Systems Consortium</corpauthor>
510 511 512
    </para>
  </refsect1>

513
</refentry><!--
514 515 516 517
 - Local variables:
 - mode: sgml
 - End:
-->