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>BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual</TH
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><HR
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><DIV
CLASS="chapter"
><H1
><A
NAME="ch06"
>Chapter 6. <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 Configuration Reference</A
></H1
><DIV
CLASS="TOC"
><DL
><DT
><B
>Table of Contents</B
></DT
><DT
>6.1. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch06.html#configuration_file_elements"
>Configuration File Elements</A
></DT
><DT
>6.2. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch06.html#Configuration_File_Grammar"
>Configuration File Grammar</A
></DT
><DT
>6.3. <A
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HREF="Bv9ARM.ch06.html#AEN4028"
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>Zone File</A
></DT
></DL
></DIV
><P
><SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
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> 9 configuration is broadly similar
to <SPAN
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CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
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> 8; however, there are a few new areas
of configuration, such as views. <SPAN
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CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
>
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8 configuration files should work with few alterations in <SPAN
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CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
>
9, although more complex configurations should be reviewed to check
if they can be more efficiently implemented using the new features
found in <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9.</P
><P
><SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 4 configuration files can be converted to the new format
using the shell script
<TT
CLASS="filename"
>contrib/named-bootconf/named-bootconf.sh</TT
>.</P
><DIV
CLASS="sect1"
><H1
CLASS="sect1"
><A
NAME="configuration_file_elements"
>6.1. Configuration File Elements</A
></H1
><P
>Following is a list of elements used throughout the <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> configuration
file documentation:</P
><DIV
CLASS="informaltable"
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><A
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NAME="AEN1076"
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></A
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><P
></P
><TABLE
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CLASS="CALSTABLE"
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><TBODY
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><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>acl_name</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>The name of an <TT
CLASS="varname"
>address_match_list</TT
> as
defined by the <B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> statement.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>address_match_list</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>A list of one or more <TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip_addr</TT
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>, 
<TT
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CLASS="varname"
>ip_prefix</TT
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>, <TT
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CLASS="varname"
>key_id</TT
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>, 
or <TT
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CLASS="varname"
>acl_name</TT
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> elements, see
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<A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch06.html#address_match_lists"
>Section 6.1.1</A
>.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>domain_name</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>A quoted string which will be used as
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a DNS name, for example "<TT
CLASS="literal"
>my.test.domain</TT
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>".</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>dotted_decimal</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
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>One to four integers valued 0 through
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255 separated by dots (`.'), such as <B
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CLASS="command"
>123</B
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>, 
<B
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CLASS="command"
>45.67</B
> or <B
CLASS="command"
>89.123.45.67</B
>.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip4_addr</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>An IPv4 address with exactly four elements
in <TT
CLASS="varname"
>dotted_decimal</TT
> notation.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip6_addr</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>An IPv6 address, such as <B
CLASS="command"
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>2001:db8::1234</B
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>.
IPv6 scoped addresses that have ambiguity on their scope zones must be
disambiguated by an appropriate zone ID with the percent character
(`%') as delimiter.
It is strongly recommended to use string zone names rather than
numeric identifiers, in order to be robust against system
configuration changes.
However, since there is no standard mapping for such names and
identifier values, currently only interface names as link identifiers
are supported, assuming one-to-one mapping between interfaces and links.
For example, a link-local address <B
CLASS="command"
>fe80::1</B
> on the
link attached to the interface <B
CLASS="command"
>ne0</B
>
can be specified as <B
CLASS="command"
>fe80::1%ne0</B
>.
Note that on most systems link-local addresses always have the
ambiguity, and need to be disambiguated.</P
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></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip_addr</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>An <TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip4_addr</TT
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> or <TT
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CLASS="varname"
>ip6_addr</TT
>.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip_port</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>An IP port <TT
CLASS="varname"
>number</TT
>.
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<TT
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CLASS="varname"
>number</TT
> is limited to 0 through 65535, with values
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below 1024 typically restricted to use by processes running as root.
In some cases an asterisk (`*') character can be used as a placeholder to
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select a random high-numbered port.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip_prefix</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>An IP network specified as an <TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip_addr</TT
>,
followed by a slash (`/') and then the number of bits in the netmask.
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Trailing zeros in a <TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip_addr</TT
> may omitted.
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For example, <B
CLASS="command"
>127/8</B
> is the network <B
CLASS="command"
>127.0.0.0</B
> with
netmask <B
CLASS="command"
>255.0.0.0</B
> and <B
CLASS="command"
>1.2.3.0/28</B
> is
network <B
CLASS="command"
>1.2.3.0</B
> with netmask <B
CLASS="command"
>255.255.255.240</B
>.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>key_id</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>A <TT
CLASS="varname"
>domain_name</TT
> representing
the name of a shared key, to be used for transaction security.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>key_list</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>A list of one or more <TT
CLASS="varname"
>key_id</TT
>s,
separated by semicolons and ending with a semicolon.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>number</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
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>A non-negative 32 bit integer
(i.e., a number between 0 and 4294967295, inclusive).
Its acceptable value might further
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be limited by the context in which it is used.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>path_name</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>A quoted string which will be used as
a pathname, such as <TT
CLASS="filename"
>zones/master/my.test.domain</TT
>.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>size_spec</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>A number, the word <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>unlimited</B
></TT
>,
or the word <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>default</B
></TT
>.</P
><P
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>&#13;An <TT
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CLASS="varname"
>unlimited</TT
> <TT
CLASS="varname"
>size_spec</TT
> requests unlimited
use, or the maximum available amount. A <TT
CLASS="varname"
>default size_spec</TT
> uses
the limit that was in force when the server was started.</P
><P
>A <TT
CLASS="varname"
>number</TT
> can
optionally be followed by a scaling factor: <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>K</B
></TT
> or <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>k</B
></TT
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> for
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kilobytes, <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>M</B
></TT
> or <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>m</B
></TT
> for
megabytes, and <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>G</B
></TT
> or <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>g</B
></TT
> for gigabytes,
which scale by 1024, 1024*1024, and 1024*1024*1024 respectively.</P
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>
<P
>The value must be representable as a 64-bit unsigned integer
(0 to 18446744073709551615, inclusive).
Using <TT
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CLASS="varname"
>unlimited</TT
> is the best way
to safely set a really large number.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>yes_or_no</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>Either <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>yes</B
></TT
> or <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>no</B
></TT
>.
The words <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>true</B
></TT
> and <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>false</B
></TT
> are
also accepted, as are the numbers <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>1</B
></TT
> and <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>0</B
></TT
>.</P
></TD
></TR
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><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>dialup_option</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>One of <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>yes</B
></TT
>,
<TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>no</B
></TT
>, <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>notify</B
></TT
>,
<TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>notify-passive</B
></TT
>, <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>refresh</B
></TT
> or
<TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>passive</B
></TT
>.
When used in a zone, <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>notify-passive</B
></TT
>,
<TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>refresh</B
></TT
>, and <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>passive</B
></TT
>
are restricted to slave and stub zones.</P
></TD
></TR
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></TBODY
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></TABLE
><P
></P
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
NAME="address_match_lists"
>6.1.1. Address Match Lists</A
></H2
><DIV
CLASS="sect3"
><H3
CLASS="sect3"
><A
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NAME="AEN1241"
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>6.1.1.1. Syntax</A
></H3
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>address_match_list</TT
> = address_match_list_element ;
  [<SPAN
CLASS="optional"
> address_match_list_element; ... </SPAN
>]
<TT
CLASS="varname"
>address_match_list_element</TT
> = [<SPAN
CLASS="optional"
> ! </SPAN
>] (ip_address [<SPAN
CLASS="optional"
>/length</SPAN
>] |
   key key_id | acl_name | { address_match_list } )
</PRE
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect3"
><H3
CLASS="sect3"
><A
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NAME="AEN1249"
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>6.1.1.2. Definition and Usage</A
></H3
><P
>Address match lists are primarily used to determine access
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control for various server operations. They are also used in
the <B
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CLASS="command"
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>listen-on</B
> and <B
CLASS="command"
>sortlist</B
>
statements. The elements
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which constitute an address match list can be any of the following:</P
><P
></P
><UL
><LI
><P
>an IP address (IPv4 or IPv6)</P
></LI
><LI
><P
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>an IP prefix (in `/' notation)</P
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></LI
><LI
><P
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>a key ID, as defined by the <B
CLASS="command"
>key</B
> statement</P
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></LI
><LI
><P
>the name of an address match list previously defined with
the <B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> statement</P
></LI
><LI
><P
>a nested address match list enclosed in braces</P
></LI
></UL
><P
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>Elements can be negated with a leading exclamation mark (`!'),
and the match list names "any", "none", "localhost", and "localnets"
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are predefined. More information on those names can be found in
the description of the acl statement.</P
><P
>The addition of the key clause made the name of this syntactic
element something of a misnomer, since security keys can be used
to validate access without regard to a host or network address. Nonetheless,
the term "address match list" is still used throughout the documentation.</P
><P
>When a given IP address or prefix is compared to an address
match list, the list is traversed in order until an element matches.
The interpretation of a match depends on whether the list is being used
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for access control, defining listen-on ports, or in a sortlist,
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and whether the element was negated.</P
><P
>When used as an access control list, a non-negated match allows
access and a negated match denies access. If there is no match,
access is denied. The clauses <B
CLASS="command"
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>allow-notify</B
>,
<B
CLASS="command"
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>allow-query</B
>, <B
CLASS="command"
>allow-transfer</B
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>,
<B
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CLASS="command"
>allow-update</B
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>, <B
CLASS="command"
>allow-update-forwarding</B
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>,
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and <B
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CLASS="command"
>blackhole</B
> all
use address match lists  this. Similarly, the listen-on option will cause
the server to not accept queries on any of the machine's addresses
which do not match the list.</P
><P
>Because of the first-match aspect of the algorithm, an element
that defines a subset of another element in the list should come
before the broader element, regardless of whether either is negated. For
example, in
<B
CLASS="command"
>1.2.3/24; ! 1.2.3.13;</B
> the 1.2.3.13 element is
completely useless because the algorithm will match any lookup for
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1.2.3.13 to the 1.2.3/24 element.
Using <B
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CLASS="command"
>! 1.2.3.13; 1.2.3/24</B
> fixes
that problem by having 1.2.3.13 blocked by the negation but all
other 1.2.3.* hosts fall through.</P
></DIV
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
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>6.1.2. Comment Syntax</A
></H2
><P
>The <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 comment syntax allows for comments to appear
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anywhere that white space may appear in a <SPAN
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CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> configuration
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file. To appeal to programmers of all kinds, they can be written
in the C, C++, or shell/perl style.</P
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><DIV
CLASS="sect3"
><H3
CLASS="sect3"
><A
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>6.1.2.1. Syntax</A
></H3
><P
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
>/* This is a <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> comment as in C */</PRE
>
<PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
>// This is a <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> comment as in C++</PRE
>
<PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
># This is a <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> comment as in common UNIX shells and perl</PRE
>
      </P
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect3"
><H3
CLASS="sect3"
><A
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NAME="AEN1294"
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>6.1.2.2. Definition and Usage</A
></H3
><P
>Comments may appear anywhere that whitespace may appear in
a <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> configuration file.</P
><P
>C-style comments start with the two characters /* (slash,
star) and end with */ (star, slash). Because they are completely
delimited with these characters, they can be used to comment only
a portion of a line or to span multiple lines.</P
><P
>C-style comments cannot be nested. For example, the following
is not valid because the entire comment ends with the first */:</P
><P
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
>/* This is the start of a comment.
   This is still part of the comment.
/* This is an incorrect attempt at nesting a comment. */
   This is no longer in any comment. */
</PRE
></P
><P
>C++-style comments start with the two characters // (slash,
slash) and continue to the end of the physical line. They cannot
be continued across multiple physical lines; to have one logical
comment span multiple lines, each line must use the // pair.</P
><P
>For example:</P
><P
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
>// This is the start of a comment.  The next line
// is a new comment, even though it is logically
// part of the previous comment.
</PRE
></P
><P
>Shell-style (or perl-style, if you prefer) comments start
with the character <TT
CLASS="literal"
>#</TT
> (number sign) and continue to the end of the
physical line, as in C++ comments.</P
><P
>For example:</P
><P
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
># This is the start of a comment.  The next line
# is a new comment, even though it is logically
# part of the previous comment.
</PRE
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>
</P
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><DIV
CLASS="warning"
><P
></P
><TABLE
CLASS="warning"
BORDER="1"
WIDTH="100%"
><TR
><TD
ALIGN="CENTER"
><B
>Warning</B
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
ALIGN="LEFT"
><P
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>You cannot use the semicolon (`;') character
   to start a comment such as you would in a zone file. The
   semicolon indicates the end of a configuration
   statement.</P
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></TD
></TR
></TABLE
></DIV
></DIV
></DIV
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect1"
><H1
CLASS="sect1"
><A
NAME="Configuration_File_Grammar"
>6.2. Configuration File Grammar</A
></H1
><P
>A <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 configuration consists of statements and comments.
    Statements end with a semicolon. Statements and comments are the
    only elements that can appear without enclosing braces. Many
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    statements contain a block of sub-statements, which are also
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    terminated with a semicolon.</P
><P
>The following statements are supported:</P
><DIV
CLASS="informaltable"
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><A
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NAME="AEN1318"
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></A
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><P
></P
><TABLE
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CELLPADDING="3"
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BORDER="1"
CLASS="CALSTABLE"
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><TBODY
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><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>defines a named IP address
matching list, for access control and other uses.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>declares control channels to be used
by the <B
CLASS="command"
>rndc</B
> utility.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>include</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>includes a file.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>key</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>specifies key information for use in
authentication and authorization using TSIG.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>logging</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>specifies what the server logs, and where
the log messages are sent.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
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>lwres</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>configures <B
CLASS="command"
>named</B
> to
also act as a light weight resolver daemon (<B
CLASS="command"
>lwresd</B
>).</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
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>masters</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>defines a named masters list for
inclusion in stub and slave zone masters clauses.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
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>options</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>controls global server configuration
options and sets defaults for other statements.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>server</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>sets certain configuration options on
a per-server basis.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>trusted-keys</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>defines trusted DNSSEC keys.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>view</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>defines a view.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>zone</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>defines a zone.</P
></TD
></TR
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></TBODY
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></TABLE
><P
></P
></DIV
><P
>The <B
CLASS="command"
>logging</B
> and
    <B
CLASS="command"
>options</B
> statements may only occur once per
    configuration.</P
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
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>6.2.1. <B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> Statement Grammar</A
></H2
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
><B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> acl-name { 
    address_match_list 
};
</PRE
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
NAME="acl"
>6.2.2. <B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> Statement Definition and
Usage</A
></H2
><P
>The <B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> statement assigns a symbolic
      name to an address match list. It gets its name from a primary
      use of address match lists: Access Control Lists (ACLs).</P
><P
>Note that an address match list's name must be defined
      with <B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> before it can be used elsewhere; no
      forward references are allowed.</P
><P
>The following ACLs are built-in:</P
><DIV
CLASS="informaltable"
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><A
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NAME="AEN1414"
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></A
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><P
></P
><TABLE
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CELLPADDING="3"
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BORDER="1"
CLASS="CALSTABLE"
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><TBODY
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><TR
><TD
WIDTH="108"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>any</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="384"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>Matches all hosts.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="108"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>none</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="384"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>Matches no hosts.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="108"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>localhost</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="384"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
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>Matches the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses of all network
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interfaces on the system.</P
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></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="108"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>localnets</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="384"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
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>Matches any host on an IPv4 or IPv6 network
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for which the system has an interface.
Some systems do not provide a way to determine the prefix lengths of
local IPv6 addresses.
In such a case, <B
CLASS="command"
>localnets</B
> only matches the local
IPv6 addresses, just like <B
CLASS="command"
>localhost</B
>.
</P
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></TD
></TR
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></TBODY
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></TABLE
><P
></P
></DIV
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
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>6.2.3. <B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
> Statement Grammar</A
></H2
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
><B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
> {
   inet ( ip_addr | * ) [<SPAN
CLASS="optional"
> port ip_port </SPAN
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>] allow { <TT
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CLASS="replaceable"
><I
> address_match_list </I
></TT
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> }
                keys { <TT
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CLASS="replaceable"
><I
> key_list </I
></TT
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> };
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   [<SPAN
CLASS="optional"
> inet ...; </SPAN
>]
};
</PRE
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
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NAME="controls_statement_definition_and_usage"
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>6.2.4. <B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
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> Statement Definition and Usage</A
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></H2
><P
>The <B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
> statement declares control
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      channels to be used by system administrators to control the
      operation of the name server. These control channels are
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      used by the <B
CLASS="command"
>rndc</B
> utility to send commands to
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      and retrieve non-DNS results from a name server.</P
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><P
>An <B
CLASS="command"
>inet</B
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> control channel is a TCP
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      socket listening at the specified
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      <B
CLASS="command"
>ip_port</B
> on the specified
      <B
CLASS="command"
>ip_addr</B
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>, which can be an IPv4 or IPv6
      address.  An <B
CLASS="command"
>ip_addr</B
>
      of <TT
CLASS="literal"
>*</TT
> is interpreted as the IPv4 wildcard
      address; connections will be accepted on any of the system's
      IPv4 addresses.  To listen on the IPv6 wildcard address,
      use an <B
CLASS="command"
>ip_addr</B
> of <TT
CLASS="literal"
>::</TT
>.
      If you will only use <B
CLASS="command"
>rndc</B
> on the local host,
      using the loopback address (<TT
CLASS="literal"
>127.0.0.1</TT
>
      or <TT
CLASS="literal"
>::1</TT
>) is recommended for maximum
      security.
      </P
><P
>&#13;      If no port is specified, port 953
      is used.  "<TT
CLASS="literal"
>*</TT
>" cannot be used for
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      <B
CLASS="command"
>ip_port</B
>.</P
><P
>The ability to issue commands over the control channel is
      restricted by the <B
CLASS="command"
>allow</B
> and
      <B
CLASS="command"
>keys</B
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> clauses. Connections to the control
      channel are permitted based on the
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      <B
CLASS="command"
>address_match_list</B
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>.  This is for simple
      IP address based filtering only; any <B
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CLASS="command"
>key_id</B
>
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      elements of the <B
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CLASS="command"
>address_match_list</B
> are
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      ignored.
      </P
><P
>The primary authorization mechanism of the command
      channel is the <B
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CLASS="command"
>key_list</B
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>, which contains
      a list of <B
CLASS="command"
>key_id</B
>s.
      Each <B
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CLASS="command"
>key_id</B
> in
      the <B
CLASS="command"
>key_list</B
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> is authorized to execute
      commands over the control channel.
      See <A
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HREF="Bv9ARM.ch03.html#rndc"
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>Remote Name Daemon Control application</A
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> in
      <A
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>Section 3.3.1.2</A
>) for information about
      configuring keys in <B
CLASS="command"
>rndc</B
>.</P
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><P
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>&#13;If no <B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
> statement is present,
<B
CLASS="command"
>named</B
> will set up a default
control channel listening on the loopback address 127.0.0.1
and its IPv6 counterpart ::1.
In this case, and also when the <B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
> statement
is present but does not have a <B
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CLASS="command"
>keys</B
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> clause,
<B
CLASS="command"
>named</B
> will attempt to load the command channel key
from the file <TT
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CLASS="filename"
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>rndc.key</TT
> in
<TT
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CLASS="filename"
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>/etc</TT
> (or whatever <TT
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CLASS="varname"
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>sysconfdir</TT
>
was specified as when <SPAN
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CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
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> was built).
To create a <TT
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CLASS="filename"
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>rndc.key</TT
> file, run
<TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>rndc-confgen -a</B
></TT
>.
</P
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><P
>The <TT
CLASS="filename"
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>rndc.key</TT
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> feature was created to
      ease the transition of systems from <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 8,
      which did not have digital signatures on its command channel messages
      and thus did not have a <B
CLASS="command"
>keys</B
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> clause.

It makes it possible to use an existing <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 8
configuration file in <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 unchanged,
and still have <B
CLASS="command"
>rndc</B
> work the same way
<B
CLASS="command"
>ndc</B
> worked in BIND 8, simply by executing the
command <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
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>rndc-confgen -a</B
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></TT
> after BIND 9 is
installed.
</P
><P
>&#13;      Since the <TT
CLASS="filename"
>rndc.key</TT
> feature
      is only intended to allow the backward-compatible usage of
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