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>BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual</TH
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><DIV
CLASS="chapter"
><H1
><A
NAME="ch06"
>Chapter 6. <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 Configuration Reference</A
></H1
><DIV
CLASS="TOC"
><DL
><DT
><B
>Table of Contents</B
></DT
><DT
>6.1. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch06.html#configuration_file_elements"
>Configuration File Elements</A
></DT
><DT
>6.2. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch06.html#Configuration_File_Grammar"
>Configuration File Grammar</A
></DT
><DT
>6.3. <A
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>Zone File</A
></DT
></DL
></DIV
><P
><SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
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> 9 configuration is broadly similar
to <SPAN
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CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
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> 8; however, there are a few new areas
of configuration, such as views. <SPAN
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CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
>
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8 configuration files should work with few alterations in <SPAN
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CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
>
9, although more complex configurations should be reviewed to check
if they can be more efficiently implemented using the new features
found in <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9.</P
><P
><SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 4 configuration files can be converted to the new format
using the shell script
<TT
CLASS="filename"
>contrib/named-bootconf/named-bootconf.sh</TT
>.</P
><DIV
CLASS="sect1"
><H1
CLASS="sect1"
><A
NAME="configuration_file_elements"
>6.1. Configuration File Elements</A
></H1
><P
>Following is a list of elements used throughout the <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> configuration
file documentation:</P
><DIV
CLASS="informaltable"
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><A
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NAME="AEN1134"
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></A
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><P
></P
><TABLE
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BORDER="1"
CLASS="CALSTABLE"
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><TBODY
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><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>acl_name</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>The name of an <TT
CLASS="varname"
>address_match_list</TT
> as
defined by the <B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> statement.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>address_match_list</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>A list of one or more <TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip_addr</TT
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>, 
<TT
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CLASS="varname"
>ip_prefix</TT
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>, <TT
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CLASS="varname"
>key_id</TT
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>, 
or <TT
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CLASS="varname"
>acl_name</TT
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> elements, see
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<A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch06.html#address_match_lists"
>Section 6.1.1</A
>.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>domain_name</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>A quoted string which will be used as
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a DNS name, for example "<TT
CLASS="literal"
>my.test.domain</TT
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>".</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>dotted_decimal</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
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>One to four integers valued 0 through
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255 separated by dots (`.'), such as <B
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CLASS="command"
>123</B
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>, 
<B
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CLASS="command"
>45.67</B
> or <B
CLASS="command"
>89.123.45.67</B
>.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip4_addr</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>An IPv4 address with exactly four elements
in <TT
CLASS="varname"
>dotted_decimal</TT
> notation.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip6_addr</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>An IPv6 address, such as <B
CLASS="command"
>fe80::200:f8ff:fe01:9742</B
>.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip_addr</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>An <TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip4_addr</TT
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> or <TT
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CLASS="varname"
>ip6_addr</TT
>.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip_port</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>An IP port <TT
CLASS="varname"
>number</TT
>.
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<TT
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CLASS="varname"
>number</TT
> is limited to 0 through 65535, with values
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below 1024 typically restricted to use by processes running as root.
In some cases an asterisk (`*') character can be used as a placeholder to
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select a random high-numbered port.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip_prefix</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>An IP network specified as an <TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip_addr</TT
>,
followed by a slash (`/') and then the number of bits in the netmask.
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Trailing zeros in a <TT
CLASS="varname"
>ip_addr</TT
> may omitted.
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For example, <B
CLASS="command"
>127/8</B
> is the network <B
CLASS="command"
>127.0.0.0</B
> with
netmask <B
CLASS="command"
>255.0.0.0</B
> and <B
CLASS="command"
>1.2.3.0/28</B
> is
network <B
CLASS="command"
>1.2.3.0</B
> with netmask <B
CLASS="command"
>255.255.255.240</B
>.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>key_id</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>A <TT
CLASS="varname"
>domain_name</TT
> representing
the name of a shared key, to be used for transaction security.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>key_list</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>A list of one or more <TT
CLASS="varname"
>key_id</TT
>s,
separated by semicolons and ending with a semicolon.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>number</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
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>A non-negative 32 bit integer
(i.e., a number between 0 and 4294967295, inclusive).
Its acceptable value might further
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be limited by the context in which it is used.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>path_name</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>A quoted string which will be used as
a pathname, such as <TT
CLASS="filename"
>zones/master/my.test.domain</TT
>.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>size_spec</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>A number, the word <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>unlimited</B
></TT
>,
or the word <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>default</B
></TT
>.</P
><P
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>&#13;An <TT
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CLASS="varname"
>unlimited</TT
> <TT
CLASS="varname"
>size_spec</TT
> requests unlimited
use, or the maximum available amount. A <TT
CLASS="varname"
>default size_spec</TT
> uses
the limit that was in force when the server was started.</P
><P
>A <TT
CLASS="varname"
>number</TT
> can
optionally be followed by a scaling factor: <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>K</B
></TT
> or <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>k</B
></TT
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> for
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kilobytes, <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>M</B
></TT
> or <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>m</B
></TT
> for
megabytes, and <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>G</B
></TT
> or <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>g</B
></TT
> for gigabytes,
which scale by 1024, 1024*1024, and 1024*1024*1024 respectively.</P
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>
<P
>The value must be representable as a 64-bit unsigned integer
(0 to 18446744073709551615, inclusive).
Using <TT
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CLASS="varname"
>unlimited</TT
> is the best way
to safely set a really large number.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>yes_or_no</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>Either <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>yes</B
></TT
> or <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>no</B
></TT
>.
The words <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>true</B
></TT
> and <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>false</B
></TT
> are
also accepted, as are the numbers <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>1</B
></TT
> and <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>0</B
></TT
>.</P
></TD
></TR
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><TR
><TD
WIDTH="178"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>dialup_option</TT
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="362"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>One of <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>yes</B
></TT
>,
<TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>no</B
></TT
>, <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>notify</B
></TT
>,
<TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>notify-passive</B
></TT
>, <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>refresh</B
></TT
> or
<TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>passive</B
></TT
>.
When used in a zone, <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>notify-passive</B
></TT
>,
<TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>refresh</B
></TT
>, and <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>passive</B
></TT
>
are restricted to slave and stub zones.</P
></TD
></TR
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></TBODY
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></TABLE
><P
></P
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
NAME="address_match_lists"
>6.1.1. Address Match Lists</A
></H2
><DIV
CLASS="sect3"
><H3
CLASS="sect3"
><A
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>6.1.1.1. Syntax</A
></H3
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
><TT
CLASS="varname"
>address_match_list</TT
> = address_match_list_element ;
  [<SPAN
CLASS="optional"
> address_match_list_element; ... </SPAN
>]
<TT
CLASS="varname"
>address_match_list_element</TT
> = [<SPAN
CLASS="optional"
> ! </SPAN
>] (ip_address [<SPAN
CLASS="optional"
>/length</SPAN
>] |
   key key_id | acl_name | { address_match_list } )
</PRE
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect3"
><H3
CLASS="sect3"
><A
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>6.1.1.2. Definition and Usage</A
></H3
><P
>Address match lists are primarily used to determine access
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control for various server operations. They are also used in
the <B
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CLASS="command"
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>listen-on</B
> and <B
CLASS="command"
>sortlist</B
>
statements. The elements
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which constitute an address match list can be any of the following:</P
><P
></P
><UL
><LI
><P
>an IP address (IPv4 or IPv6)</P
></LI
><LI
><P
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>an IP prefix (in `/' notation)</P
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></LI
><LI
><P
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>a key ID, as defined by the <B
CLASS="command"
>key</B
> statement</P
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></LI
><LI
><P
>the name of an address match list previously defined with
the <B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> statement</P
></LI
><LI
><P
>a nested address match list enclosed in braces</P
></LI
></UL
><P
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>Elements can be negated with a leading exclamation mark (`!'),
and the match list names "any", "none", "localhost", and "localnets"
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are predefined. More information on those names can be found in
the description of the acl statement.</P
><P
>The addition of the key clause made the name of this syntactic
element something of a misnomer, since security keys can be used
to validate access without regard to a host or network address. Nonetheless,
the term "address match list" is still used throughout the documentation.</P
><P
>When a given IP address or prefix is compared to an address
match list, the list is traversed in order until an element matches.
The interpretation of a match depends on whether the list is being used
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for access control, defining listen-on ports, or in a sortlist,
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and whether the element was negated.</P
><P
>When used as an access control list, a non-negated match allows
access and a negated match denies access. If there is no match,
access is denied. The clauses <B
CLASS="command"
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>allow-notify</B
>,
<B
CLASS="command"
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>allow-query</B
>, <B
CLASS="command"
>allow-transfer</B
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>,
<B
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CLASS="command"
>allow-update</B
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>, <B
CLASS="command"
>allow-update-forwarding</B
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>,
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and <B
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CLASS="command"
>blackhole</B
> all
use address match lists  this. Similarly, the listen-on option will cause
the server to not accept queries on any of the machine's addresses
which do not match the list.</P
><P
>Because of the first-match aspect of the algorithm, an element
that defines a subset of another element in the list should come
before the broader element, regardless of whether either is negated. For
example, in
<B
CLASS="command"
>1.2.3/24; ! 1.2.3.13;</B
> the 1.2.3.13 element is
completely useless because the algorithm will match any lookup for
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1.2.3.13 to the 1.2.3/24 element.
Using <B
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CLASS="command"
>! 1.2.3.13; 1.2.3/24</B
> fixes
that problem by having 1.2.3.13 blocked by the negation but all
other 1.2.3.* hosts fall through.</P
></DIV
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
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>6.1.2. Comment Syntax</A
></H2
><P
>The <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 comment syntax allows for comments to appear
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anywhere that white space may appear in a <SPAN
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CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> configuration
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file. To appeal to programmers of all kinds, they can be written
in the C, C++, or shell/perl style.</P
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><DIV
CLASS="sect3"
><H3
CLASS="sect3"
><A
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NAME="AEN1340"
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>6.1.2.1. Syntax</A
></H3
><P
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
>/* This is a <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> comment as in C */</PRE
>
<PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
>// This is a <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> comment as in C++</PRE
>
<PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
># This is a <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> comment as in common UNIX shells and perl</PRE
>
      </P
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect3"
><H3
CLASS="sect3"
><A
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>6.1.2.2. Definition and Usage</A
></H3
><P
>Comments may appear anywhere that whitespace may appear in
a <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> configuration file.</P
><P
>C-style comments start with the two characters /* (slash,
star) and end with */ (star, slash). Because they are completely
delimited with these characters, they can be used to comment only
a portion of a line or to span multiple lines.</P
><P
>C-style comments cannot be nested. For example, the following
is not valid because the entire comment ends with the first */:</P
><P
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
>/* This is the start of a comment.
   This is still part of the comment.
/* This is an incorrect attempt at nesting a comment. */
   This is no longer in any comment. */
</PRE
></P
><P
>C++-style comments start with the two characters // (slash,
slash) and continue to the end of the physical line. They cannot
be continued across multiple physical lines; to have one logical
comment span multiple lines, each line must use the // pair.</P
><P
>For example:</P
><P
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
>// This is the start of a comment.  The next line
// is a new comment, even though it is logically
// part of the previous comment.
</PRE
></P
><P
>Shell-style (or perl-style, if you prefer) comments start
with the character <TT
CLASS="literal"
>#</TT
> (number sign) and continue to the end of the
physical line, as in C++ comments.</P
><P
>For example:</P
><P
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
># This is the start of a comment.  The next line
# is a new comment, even though it is logically
# part of the previous comment.
</PRE
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>
</P
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><DIV
CLASS="warning"
><P
></P
><TABLE
CLASS="warning"
BORDER="1"
WIDTH="100%"
><TR
><TD
ALIGN="CENTER"
><B
>Warning</B
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
ALIGN="LEFT"
><P
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>You cannot use the semicolon (`;') character
   to start a comment such as you would in a zone file. The
   semicolon indicates the end of a configuration
   statement.</P
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></TD
></TR
></TABLE
></DIV
></DIV
></DIV
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect1"
><H1
CLASS="sect1"
><A
NAME="Configuration_File_Grammar"
>6.2. Configuration File Grammar</A
></H1
><P
>A <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 configuration consists of statements and comments.
    Statements end with a semicolon. Statements and comments are the
    only elements that can appear without enclosing braces. Many
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    statements contain a block of sub-statements, which are also
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    terminated with a semicolon.</P
><P
>The following statements are supported:</P
><DIV
CLASS="informaltable"
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><A
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NAME="AEN1373"
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></A
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><P
></P
><TABLE
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CELLPADDING="3"
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BORDER="1"
CLASS="CALSTABLE"
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><TBODY
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><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>defines a named IP address
matching list, for access control and other uses.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>declares control channels to be used
by the <B
CLASS="command"
>rndc</B
> utility.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>include</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>includes a file.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>key</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>specifies key information for use in
authentication and authorization using TSIG.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>logging</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>specifies what the server logs, and where
the log messages are sent.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>options</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>controls global server configuration
options and sets defaults for other statements.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>server</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>sets certain configuration options on
a per-server basis.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>trusted-keys</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>defines trusted DNSSEC keys.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>view</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>defines a view.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="128"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>zone</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="363"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>defines a zone.</P
></TD
></TR
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></TBODY
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></TABLE
><P
></P
></DIV
><P
>The <B
CLASS="command"
>logging</B
> and
    <B
CLASS="command"
>options</B
> statements may only occur once per
    configuration.</P
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
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>6.2.1. <B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> Statement Grammar</A
></H2
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
><B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> acl-name { 
    address_match_list 
};
</PRE
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
NAME="acl"
>6.2.2. <B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> Statement Definition and
Usage</A
></H2
><P
>The <B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> statement assigns a symbolic
      name to an address match list. It gets its name from a primary
      use of address match lists: Access Control Lists (ACLs).</P
><P
>Note that an address match list's name must be defined
      with <B
CLASS="command"
>acl</B
> before it can be used elsewhere; no
      forward references are allowed.</P
><P
>The following ACLs are built-in:</P
><DIV
CLASS="informaltable"
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><A
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NAME="AEN1455"
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></A
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><P
></P
><TABLE
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CELLPADDING="3"
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BORDER="1"
CLASS="CALSTABLE"
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><TBODY
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><TR
><TD
WIDTH="108"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>any</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="384"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>Matches all hosts.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="108"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>none</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="384"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
>Matches no hosts.</P
></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="108"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>localhost</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="384"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
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>Matches the IPv4 addresses of all network
interfaces on the system.</P
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></TD
></TR
><TR
><TD
WIDTH="108"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
><B
CLASS="command"
>localnets</B
></P
></TD
><TD
WIDTH="384"
ALIGN="LEFT"
VALIGN="MIDDLE"
><P
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>Matches any host on an IPv4 network for which
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the system has an interface.</P
></TD
></TR
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></TBODY
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></TABLE
><P
></P
></DIV
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><P
>The <B
CLASS="command"
>localhost</B
> and <B
CLASS="command"
>localnets</B
>
ACLs do not currently support IPv6 (that is,
<B
CLASS="command"
>localhost</B
> does not match the host's IPv6 addresses,
and <B
CLASS="command"
>localnets</B
> does not match the host's attached
IPv6 networks) due to the lack of a standard method of determining the
complete set of local IPv6 addresses for a host.
</P
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></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
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NAME="AEN1489"
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>6.2.3. <B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
> Statement Grammar</A
></H2
><PRE
CLASS="programlisting"
><B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
> {
   inet ( ip_addr | * ) [<SPAN
CLASS="optional"
> port ip_port </SPAN
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>] allow { <TT
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CLASS="replaceable"
><I
> address_match_list </I
></TT
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> }
                keys { <TT
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CLASS="replaceable"
><I
> key_list </I
></TT
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> };
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   [<SPAN
CLASS="optional"
> inet ...; </SPAN
>]
};
</PRE
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
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NAME="controls_statement_definition_and_usage"
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>6.2.4. <B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
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> Statement Definition and Usage</A
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></H2
><P
>The <B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
> statement declares control
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      channels to be used by system administrators to control the
      operation of the name server. These control channels are
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      used by the <B
CLASS="command"
>rndc</B
> utility to send commands to
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      and retrieve non-DNS results from a name server.</P
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><P
>An <B
CLASS="command"
>inet</B
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> control channel is a TCP
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      socket listening at the specified
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      <B
CLASS="command"
>ip_port</B
> on the specified
      <B
CLASS="command"
>ip_addr</B
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>, which can be an IPv4 or IPv6
      address.  An <B
CLASS="command"
>ip_addr</B
>
      of <TT
CLASS="literal"
>*</TT
> is interpreted as the IPv4 wildcard
      address; connections will be accepted on any of the system's
      IPv4 addresses.  To listen on the IPv6 wildcard address,
      use an <B
CLASS="command"
>ip_addr</B
> of <TT
CLASS="literal"
>::</TT
>.
      If you will only use <B
CLASS="command"
>rndc</B
> on the local host,
      using the loopback address (<TT
CLASS="literal"
>127.0.0.1</TT
>
      or <TT
CLASS="literal"
>::1</TT
>) is recommended for maximum
      security.
      </P
><P
>&#13;      If no port is specified, port 953
      is used.  "<TT
CLASS="literal"
>*</TT
>" cannot be used for
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      <B
CLASS="command"
>ip_port</B
>.</P
><P
>The ability to issue commands over the control channel is
      restricted by the <B
CLASS="command"
>allow</B
> and
      <B
CLASS="command"
>keys</B
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> clauses. Connections to the control
      channel are permitted based on the
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      <B
CLASS="command"
>address_match_list</B
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>.  This is for simple
      IP address based filtering only; any <B
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CLASS="command"
>key_id</B
>
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      elements of the <B
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CLASS="command"
>address_match_list</B
> are
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      ignored.
      </P
><P
>The primary authorization mechanism of the command
      channel is the <B
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CLASS="command"
>key_list</B
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>, which contains
      a list of <B
CLASS="command"
>key_id</B
>s.
      Each <B
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CLASS="command"
>key_id</B
> in
      the <B
CLASS="command"
>key_list</B
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> is authorized to execute
      commands over the control channel.
      See <A
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HREF="Bv9ARM.ch03.html#rndc"
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>Remote Name Daemon Control application</A
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> in
      <A
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HREF="Bv9ARM.ch03.html#admin_tools"
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>Section 3.3.1.2</A
>) for information about
      configuring keys in <B
CLASS="command"
>rndc</B
>.</P
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><P
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>&#13;If no <B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
> statement is present,
<B
CLASS="command"
>named</B
> will set up a default
control channel listening on the loopback address 127.0.0.1
and its IPv6 counterpart ::1.
In this case, and also when the <B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
> statement
is present but does not have a <B
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CLASS="command"
>keys</B
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> clause,
<B
CLASS="command"
>named</B
> will attempt to load the command channel key
from the file <TT
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CLASS="filename"
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>rndc.key</TT
> in
<TT
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CLASS="filename"
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>/etc</TT
> (or whatever <TT
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CLASS="varname"
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>sysconfdir</TT
>
was specified as when <SPAN
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CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
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> was built).
To create a <TT
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CLASS="filename"
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>rndc.key</TT
> file, run
<TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
>rndc-confgen -a</B
></TT
>.
</P
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><P
>The <TT
CLASS="filename"
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>rndc.key</TT
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> feature was created to
      ease the transition of systems from <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 8,
      which did not have digital signatures on its command channel messages
      and thus did not have a <B
CLASS="command"
>keys</B
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> clause.

It makes it possible to use an existing <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 8
configuration file in <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 unchanged,
and still have <B
CLASS="command"
>rndc</B
> work the same way
<B
CLASS="command"
>ndc</B
> worked in BIND 8, simply by executing the
command <TT
CLASS="userinput"
><B
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>rndc-confgen -a</B
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></TT
> after BIND 9 is
installed.
</P
><P
>&#13;      Since the <TT
CLASS="filename"
>rndc.key</TT
> feature
      is only intended to allow the backward-compatible usage of
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      <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 8 configuration files, this feature does not
      have a high degree of configurability.  You cannot easily change
      the key name or the size of the secret, so you should make a
      <TT
CLASS="filename"
>rndc.conf</TT
> with your own key if you wish to change
      those things.  The <TT
CLASS="filename"
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>rndc.key</TT
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> file also has its
      permissions set such that only the owner of the file (the user that
      <B
CLASS="command"
>named</B
> is running as) can access it.  If you
      desire greater flexibility in allowing other users to access
      <B
CLASS="command"
>rndc</B
> commands then you need to create an
      <TT
CLASS="filename"
>rndc.conf</TT
> and make it group readable by a group
      that contains the users who should have access.</P
><P
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>The UNIX control channel type of <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 8 is not supported
      in <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
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> 9, and is not expected to be added in future
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      releases.  If it is present in the controls statement from a
      <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
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> 8 configuration file, it is ignored
      and a warning is logged.</P
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><P
>&#13;To disable the command channel, use an empty <B
CLASS="command"
>controls</B
>
statement: <B
CLASS="command"
>controls {};</B
>.
</P
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></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect2"
><H2
CLASS="sect2"
><A
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