named.8 5.98 KB
Newer Older
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
1
.\" Copyright (C) 2004-2007 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
2
.\" Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2003 Internet Software Consortium.
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
3
.\" 
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
4 5 6
.\" Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
.\" purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
.\" copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
7
.\" 
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
8 9
.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ISC DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH
.\" REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
10
.\" AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL ISC BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT,
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
11 12 13 14
.\" INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM
.\" LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE
.\" OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
.\" PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
15
.\"
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
16
.\" $Id: named.8,v 1.33 2007/05/16 06:12:01 marka Exp $
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
17
.\"
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
18 19
.hy 0
.ad l
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
20 21
.\"     Title: named
.\"    Author: 
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
22
.\" Generator: DocBook XSL Stylesheets v1.71.1 <http://docbook.sf.net/>
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
23 24 25 26
.\"      Date: June 30, 2000
.\"    Manual: BIND9
.\"    Source: BIND9
.\"
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
27 28 29 30 31 32
.TH "NAMED" "8" "June 30, 2000" "BIND9" "BIND9"
.\" disable hyphenation
.nh
.\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only)
.ad l
.SH "NAME"
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
33
named \- Internet domain name server
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
34 35
.SH "SYNOPSIS"
.HP 6
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
36
\fBnamed\fR [\fB\-4\fR] [\fB\-6\fR] [\fB\-c\ \fR\fB\fIconfig\-file\fR\fR] [\fB\-d\ \fR\fB\fIdebug\-level\fR\fR] [\fB\-f\fR] [\fB\-g\fR] [\fB\-m\ \fR\fB\fIflag\fR\fR] [\fB\-n\ \fR\fB\fI#cpus\fR\fR] [\fB\-p\ \fR\fB\fIport\fR\fR] [\fB\-s\fR] [\fB\-t\ \fR\fB\fIdirectory\fR\fR] [\fB\-u\ \fR\fB\fIuser\fR\fR] [\fB\-v\fR] [\fB\-x\ \fR\fB\fIcache\-file\fR\fR]
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
37 38
.SH "DESCRIPTION"
.PP
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
39 40
\fBnamed\fR
is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part of the BIND 9 distribution from ISC. For more information on the DNS, see RFCs 1033, 1034, and 1035.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
41
.PP
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
42 43 44 45
When invoked without arguments,
\fBnamed\fR
will read the default configuration file
\fI/etc/named.conf\fR, read any initial data, and listen for queries.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
46
.SH "OPTIONS"
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
47
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
48
\-4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
49
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
50 51 52 53 54
Use IPv4 only even if the host machine is capable of IPv6.
\fB\-4\fR
and
\fB\-6\fR
are mutually exclusive.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
55 56
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
57
\-6
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
58
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
59 60 61 62 63
Use IPv6 only even if the host machine is capable of IPv4.
\fB\-4\fR
and
\fB\-6\fR
are mutually exclusive.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
64 65
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
66
\-c \fIconfig\-file\fR
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
67
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75
Use
\fIconfig\-file\fR
as the configuration file instead of the default,
\fI/etc/named.conf\fR. To ensure that reloading the configuration file continues to work after the server has changed its working directory due to to a possible
\fBdirectory\fR
option in the configuration file,
\fIconfig\-file\fR
should be an absolute pathname.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
76 77
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
78
\-d \fIdebug\-level\fR
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
79
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
80 81 82 83
Set the daemon's debug level to
\fIdebug\-level\fR. Debugging traces from
\fBnamed\fR
become more verbose as the debug level increases.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
84 85
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
86
\-f
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
87
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
88
Run the server in the foreground (i.e. do not daemonize).
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
89 90
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
91
\-g
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
92
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
93 94
Run the server in the foreground and force all logging to
\fIstderr\fR.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
95 96
.RE
.PP
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107
\-m \fIflag\fR
.RS 4
Turn on memory usage debugging flags. Possible flags are
\fIusage\fR,
\fItrace\fR,
\fIrecord\fR,
\fIsize\fR, and
\fImctx\fR. These correspond to the ISC_MEM_DEBUGXXXX flags described in
\fI<isc/mem.h>\fR.
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
108
\-n \fI#cpus\fR
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
109
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
110 111 112 113 114
Create
\fI#cpus\fR
worker threads to take advantage of multiple CPUs. If not specified,
\fBnamed\fR
will try to determine the number of CPUs present and create one thread per CPU. If it is unable to determine the number of CPUs, a single worker thread will be created.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
115 116
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
117
\-p \fIport\fR
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
118
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
119 120
Listen for queries on port
\fIport\fR. If not specified, the default is port 53.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
121 122
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
123
\-s
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
124
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
125 126 127
Write memory usage statistics to
\fIstdout\fR
on exit.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
128 129
.RS
.B "Note:"
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
130
This option is mainly of interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed in a future release.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
131
.RE
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
132 133
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
134
\-t \fIdirectory\fR
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
135
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
136
Chroot to
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
137 138
\fIdirectory\fR
after processing the command line arguments, but before reading the configuration file.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
139 140
.RS
.B "Warning:"
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
141 142 143
This option should be used in conjunction with the
\fB\-u\fR
option, as chrooting a process running as root doesn't enhance security on most systems; the way
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
144
\fBchroot(2)\fR
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
145
is defined allows a process with root privileges to escape a chroot jail.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
146
.RE
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
147 148
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
149
\-u \fIuser\fR
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
150
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
151
Setuid to
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
152 153
\fIuser\fR
after completing privileged operations, such as creating sockets that listen on privileged ports.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
154 155
.RS
.B "Note:"
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
156 157 158
On Linux,
\fBnamed\fR
uses the kernel's capability mechanism to drop all root privileges except the ability to
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
159
\fBbind(2)\fR
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
160 161 162 163 164
to a privileged port and set process resource limits. Unfortunately, this means that the
\fB\-u\fR
option only works when
\fBnamed\fR
is run on kernel 2.2.18 or later, or kernel 2.3.99\-pre3 or later, since previous kernels did not allow privileges to be retained after
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
165
\fBsetuid(2)\fR.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
166
.RE
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
167 168
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
169
\-v
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
170
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
171
Report the version number and exit.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
172 173
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
174
\-x \fIcache\-file\fR
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
175
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
176 177 178
Load data from
\fIcache\-file\fR
into the cache of the default view.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
179 180
.RS
.B "Warning:"
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
181
This option must not be used. It is only of interest to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed in a future release.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
182
.RE
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
183
.RE
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
184 185
.SH "SIGNALS"
.PP
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
186 187 188
In routine operation, signals should not be used to control the nameserver;
\fBrndc\fR
should be used instead.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
189
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
190
SIGHUP
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
191
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
192
Force a reload of the server.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
193 194
.RE
.PP
Rob Austein's avatar
regen  
Rob Austein committed
195
SIGINT, SIGTERM
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
196
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
197
Shut down the server.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
198
.RE
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
199
.PP
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
200
The result of sending any other signals to the server is undefined.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
201 202
.SH "CONFIGURATION"
.PP
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
203 204 205 206
The
\fBnamed\fR
configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here. A complete description is provided in the
BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
207
.SH "FILES"
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
208
.PP
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
209
\fI/etc/named.conf\fR
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
210
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
211
The default configuration file.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
212 213
.RE
.PP
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
214
\fI/var/run/named.pid\fR
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
215
.RS 4
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
216
The default process\-id file.
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
217
.RE
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
218 219
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.PP
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
220 221 222 223 224
RFC 1033,
RFC 1034,
RFC 1035,
\fBrndc\fR(8),
\fBlwresd\fR(8),
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
225
\fBnamed.conf\fR(5),
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
226
BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.
Bob Halley's avatar
Bob Halley committed
227 228
.SH "AUTHOR"
.PP
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
229
Internet Systems Consortium
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
230
.SH "COPYRIGHT"
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
231
Copyright \(co 2004\-2007 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
Mark Andrews's avatar
regen  
Mark Andrews committed
232 233 234
.br
Copyright \(co 2000, 2001, 2003 Internet Software Consortium.
.br