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 - Copyright (C) 2004-2007 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
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 - Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2003 Internet Software Consortium.
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 - Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
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 - copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
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 - THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ISC DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH
 - REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
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 - AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL ISC BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT,
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 - LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE
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<!-- $Id: named.html,v 1.25 2007/05/16 06:12:01 marka Exp $ -->
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<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">
<title>named</title>
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<meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL Stylesheets V1.71.1">
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</head>
<body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="refentry" lang="en">
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<a name="man.named"></a><div class="titlepage"></div>
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<div class="refnamediv">
<h2>Name</h2>
<p><span class="application">named</span> &#8212; Internet domain name server</p>
</div>
<div class="refsynopsisdiv">
<h2>Synopsis</h2>
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<div class="cmdsynopsis"><p><code class="command">named</code>  [<code class="option">-4</code>] [<code class="option">-6</code>] [<code class="option">-c <em class="replaceable"><code>config-file</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-d <em class="replaceable"><code>debug-level</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-f</code>] [<code class="option">-g</code>] [<code class="option">-m <em class="replaceable"><code>flag</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-n <em class="replaceable"><code>#cpus</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-p <em class="replaceable"><code>port</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-s</code>] [<code class="option">-t <em class="replaceable"><code>directory</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-u <em class="replaceable"><code>user</code></em></code>] [<code class="option">-v</code>] [<code class="option">-x <em class="replaceable"><code>cache-file</code></em></code>]</p></div>
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</div>
<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
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<a name="id2543452"></a><h2>DESCRIPTION</h2>
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<p><span><strong class="command">named</strong></span>
      is a Domain Name System (DNS) server,
      part of the BIND 9 distribution from ISC.  For more
      information on the DNS, see RFCs 1033, 1034, and 1035.
    </p>
<p>
      When invoked without arguments, <span><strong class="command">named</strong></span>
      will
      read the default configuration file
      <code class="filename">/etc/named.conf</code>, read any initial
      data, and listen for queries.
    </p>
</div>
<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
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<a name="id2543477"></a><h2>OPTIONS</h2>
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<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term">-4</span></dt>
<dd><p>
            Use IPv4 only even if the host machine is capable of IPv6.
            <code class="option">-4</code> and <code class="option">-6</code> are mutually
            exclusive.
          </p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">-6</span></dt>
<dd><p>
            Use IPv6 only even if the host machine is capable of IPv4.
            <code class="option">-4</code> and <code class="option">-6</code> are mutually
            exclusive.
          </p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">-c <em class="replaceable"><code>config-file</code></em></span></dt>
<dd><p>
            Use <em class="replaceable"><code>config-file</code></em> as the
            configuration file instead of the default,
            <code class="filename">/etc/named.conf</code>.  To
            ensure that reloading the configuration file continues
            to work after the server has changed its working
            directory due to to a possible
            <code class="option">directory</code> option in the configuration
            file, <em class="replaceable"><code>config-file</code></em> should be
            an absolute pathname.
          </p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">-d <em class="replaceable"><code>debug-level</code></em></span></dt>
<dd><p>
            Set the daemon's debug level to <em class="replaceable"><code>debug-level</code></em>.
            Debugging traces from <span><strong class="command">named</strong></span> become
            more verbose as the debug level increases.
          </p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">-f</span></dt>
<dd><p>
            Run the server in the foreground (i.e. do not daemonize).
          </p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">-g</span></dt>
<dd><p>
            Run the server in the foreground and force all logging
            to <code class="filename">stderr</code>.
          </p></dd>
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<dt><span class="term">-m <em class="replaceable"><code>flag</code></em></span></dt>
<dd><p>
	    Turn on memory usage debugging flags.  Possible flags are
	    <em class="replaceable"><code>usage</code></em>,
	    <em class="replaceable"><code>trace</code></em>,
	    <em class="replaceable"><code>record</code></em>,
	    <em class="replaceable"><code>size</code></em>, and
	    <em class="replaceable"><code>mctx</code></em>.
	    These correspond to the ISC_MEM_DEBUGXXXX flags described in
	    <code class="filename">&lt;isc/mem.h&gt;</code>.
          </p></dd>
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<dt><span class="term">-n <em class="replaceable"><code>#cpus</code></em></span></dt>
<dd><p>
            Create <em class="replaceable"><code>#cpus</code></em> worker threads
            to take advantage of multiple CPUs.  If not specified,
            <span><strong class="command">named</strong></span> will try to determine the
            number of CPUs present and create one thread per CPU.
            If it is unable to determine the number of CPUs, a
            single worker thread will be created.
          </p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">-p <em class="replaceable"><code>port</code></em></span></dt>
<dd><p>
            Listen for queries on port <em class="replaceable"><code>port</code></em>.  If not
            specified, the default is port 53.
          </p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">-s</span></dt>
<dd>
<p>
            Write memory usage statistics to <code class="filename">stdout</code> on exit.
          </p>
<div class="note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>
              This option is mainly of interest to BIND 9 developers
              and may be removed or changed in a future release.
            </p>
</div>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">-t <em class="replaceable"><code>directory</code></em></span></dt>
<dd>
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<p>Chroot
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	    to <em class="replaceable"><code>directory</code></em> after
            processing the command line arguments, but before
            reading the configuration file.
          </p>
<div class="warning" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Warning</h3>
<p>
              This option should be used in conjunction with the
              <code class="option">-u</code> option, as chrooting a process
              running as root doesn't enhance security on most
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              systems; the way <code class="function">chroot(2)</code> is
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              defined allows a process with root privileges to
              escape a chroot jail.
            </p>
</div>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">-u <em class="replaceable"><code>user</code></em></span></dt>
<dd>
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<p>Setuid
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	    to <em class="replaceable"><code>user</code></em> after completing
            privileged operations, such as creating sockets that
            listen on privileged ports.
          </p>
<div class="note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Note</h3>
<p>
              On Linux, <span><strong class="command">named</strong></span> uses the kernel's
              		capability mechanism to drop all root privileges
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              except the ability to <code class="function">bind(2)</code> to
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              a
              privileged port and set process resource limits.
              Unfortunately, this means that the <code class="option">-u</code>
              option only works when <span><strong class="command">named</strong></span> is
              run
              on kernel 2.2.18 or later, or kernel 2.3.99-pre3 or
              later, since previous kernels did not allow privileges
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              to be retained after <code class="function">setuid(2)</code>.
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            </p>
</div>
</dd>
<dt><span class="term">-v</span></dt>
<dd><p>
            Report the version number and exit.
          </p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">-x <em class="replaceable"><code>cache-file</code></em></span></dt>
<dd>
<p>
            Load data from <em class="replaceable"><code>cache-file</code></em> into the
            cache of the default view.
          </p>
<div class="warning" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;">
<h3 class="title">Warning</h3>
<p>
              This option must not be used.  It is only of interest
              to BIND 9 developers and may be removed or changed in a
              future release.
            </p>
</div>
</dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
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<a name="id2543864"></a><h2>SIGNALS</h2>
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<p>
      In routine operation, signals should not be used to control
      the nameserver; <span><strong class="command">rndc</strong></span> should be used
      instead.
    </p>
<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term">SIGHUP</span></dt>
<dd><p>
            Force a reload of the server.
          </p></dd>
<dt><span class="term">SIGINT, SIGTERM</span></dt>
<dd><p>
            Shut down the server.
          </p></dd>
</dl></div>
<p>
      The result of sending any other signals to the server is undefined.
    </p>
</div>
<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
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<a name="id2543912"></a><h2>CONFIGURATION</h2>
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<p>
      The <span><strong class="command">named</strong></span> configuration file is too complex
      to describe in detail here.  A complete description is provided
      in the
      <em class="citetitle">BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual</em>.
    </p>
</div>
<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
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<a name="id2543929"></a><h2>FILES</h2>
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<div class="variablelist"><dl>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">/etc/named.conf</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>
            The default configuration file.
          </p></dd>
<dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">/var/run/named.pid</code></span></dt>
<dd><p>
            The default process-id file.
          </p></dd>
</dl></div>
</div>
<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
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<a name="id2543969"></a><h2>SEE ALSO</h2>
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<p><em class="citetitle">RFC 1033</em>,
      <em class="citetitle">RFC 1034</em>,
      <em class="citetitle">RFC 1035</em>,
      <span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">rndc</span>(8)</span>,
      <span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">lwresd</span>(8)</span>,
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      <span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">named.conf</span>(5)</span>,
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      <em class="citetitle">BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual</em>.
    </p>
</div>
<div class="refsect1" lang="en">
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<a name="id2544020"></a><h2>AUTHOR</h2>
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<p><span class="corpauthor">Internet Systems Consortium</span>
    </p>
</div>
</div></body>
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