dnssec-signzone.docbook 18.5 KB
Newer Older
1 2
<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
               "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd"
3
	       [<!ENTITY mdash "&#8212;">]>
Brian Wellington's avatar
Brian Wellington committed
4
<!--
Automatic Updater's avatar
Automatic Updater committed
5
 - Copyright (C) 2004-2008  Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
6
 - Copyright (C) 2000-2003  Internet Software Consortium.
Brian Wellington's avatar
Brian Wellington committed
7
 -
Automatic Updater's avatar
Automatic Updater committed
8
 - Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software for any
Brian Wellington's avatar
Brian Wellington committed
9 10 11
 - purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
 - copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
 -
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
 - THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ISC DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH
 - REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
 - AND FITNESS.  IN NO EVENT SHALL ISC BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT,
 - INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM
 - LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE
 - OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
 - PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
Brian Wellington's avatar
Brian Wellington committed
19
-->
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
20

21
<!-- $Id: dnssec-signzone.docbook,v 1.32 2009/06/04 02:13:37 marka Exp $ -->
22
<refentry id="man.dnssec-signzone">
23 24 25 26 27 28
  <refentryinfo>
    <date>June 30, 2000</date>
  </refentryinfo>

  <refmeta>
    <refentrytitle><application>dnssec-signzone</application></refentrytitle>
29
   <manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
    <refmiscinfo>BIND9</refmiscinfo>
  </refmeta>

  <refnamediv>
    <refname><application>dnssec-signzone</application></refname>
    <refpurpose>DNSSEC zone signing tool</refpurpose>
  </refnamediv>

38 39 40 41
  <docinfo>
    <copyright>
      <year>2004</year>
      <year>2005</year>
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
42
      <year>2006</year>
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
43
      <year>2007</year>
Automatic Updater's avatar
Automatic Updater committed
44
      <year>2008</year>
45 46 47 48 49 50 51
      <holder>Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")</holder>
    </copyright>
    <copyright>
      <year>2000</year>
      <year>2001</year>
      <year>2002</year>
      <year>2003</year>
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
52
      <holder>Internet Software Consortium.</holder>
53 54 55
    </copyright>
  </docinfo>

56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63
  <refsynopsisdiv>
    <cmdsynopsis>
      <command>dnssec-signzone</command>
      <arg><option>-a</option></arg>
      <arg><option>-c <replaceable class="parameter">class</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-d <replaceable class="parameter">directory</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-e <replaceable class="parameter">end-time</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-f <replaceable class="parameter">output-file</replaceable></option></arg>
64
      <arg><option>-g</option></arg>
65
      <arg><option>-h</option></arg>
66
      <arg><option>-k <replaceable class="parameter">key</replaceable></option></arg>
67
      <arg><option>-l <replaceable class="parameter">domain</replaceable></option></arg>
68
      <arg><option>-i <replaceable class="parameter">interval</replaceable></option></arg>
69
      <arg><option>-I <replaceable class="parameter">input-format</replaceable></option></arg>
70
      <arg><option>-j <replaceable class="parameter">jitter</replaceable></option></arg>
71
      <arg><option>-N <replaceable class="parameter">soa-serial-format</replaceable></option></arg>
72
      <arg><option>-o <replaceable class="parameter">origin</replaceable></option></arg>
73
      <arg><option>-O <replaceable class="parameter">output-format</replaceable></option></arg>
74
      <arg><option>-p</option></arg>
75
      <arg><option>-P</option></arg>
76
      <arg><option>-r <replaceable class="parameter">randomdev</replaceable></option></arg>
77
      <arg><option>-s <replaceable class="parameter">start-time</replaceable></option></arg>
78 79
      <arg><option>-t</option></arg>
      <arg><option>-v <replaceable class="parameter">level</replaceable></option></arg>
80
      <arg><option>-z</option></arg>
81 82 83
      <arg><option>-3 <replaceable class="parameter">salt</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-H <replaceable class="parameter">iterations</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-A</option></arg>
84 85 86 87 88 89 90
      <arg choice="req">zonefile</arg>
      <arg rep="repeat">key</arg>
    </cmdsynopsis>
  </refsynopsisdiv>

  <refsect1>
    <title>DESCRIPTION</title>
91 92 93 94 95 96 97
    <para><command>dnssec-signzone</command>
      signs a zone.  It generates
      NSEC and RRSIG records and produces a signed version of the
      zone. The security status of delegations from the signed zone
      (that is, whether the child zones are secure or not) is
      determined by the presence or absence of a
      <filename>keyset</filename> file for each child zone.
98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106
    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>OPTIONS</title>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-a</term>
107 108 109 110 111
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Verify all generated signatures.
          </para>
        </listitem>
112 113 114 115
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-c <replaceable class="parameter">class</replaceable></term>
116 117 118 119 120
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the DNS class of the zone.
          </para>
        </listitem>
121 122
      </varlistentry>

123 124
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-k <replaceable class="parameter">key</replaceable></term>
125 126 127 128 129 130
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any
            key flags.  This option may be specified multiple times.
          </para>
        </listitem>
131 132
      </varlistentry>

133 134
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-l <replaceable class="parameter">domain</replaceable></term>
135 136 137 138 139 140
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets.
            The domain is appended to the name of the records.
          </para>
        </listitem>
141 142
      </varlistentry>

143 144
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-d <replaceable class="parameter">directory</replaceable></term>
145 146 147 148 149 150
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Look for <filename>keyset</filename> files in
            <option>directory</option> as the directory
          </para>
        </listitem>
151 152
      </varlistentry>

153 154
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-g</term>
155 156 157 158 159 160
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Generate DS records for child zones from keyset files.
            Existing DS records will be removed.
          </para>
        </listitem>
161 162
      </varlistentry>

163 164
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-s <replaceable class="parameter">start-time</replaceable></term>
165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records
            become valid.  This can be either an absolute or relative
            time.  An absolute start time is indicated by a number
            in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation; 20000530144500 denotes
            14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000.  A relative start time is
            indicated by +N, which is N seconds from the current time.
            If no <option>start-time</option> is specified, the current
            time minus 1 hour (to allow for clock skew) is used.
          </para>
        </listitem>
177 178 179 180
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-e <replaceable class="parameter">end-time</replaceable></term>
181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records
            expire.  As with <option>start-time</option>, an absolute
            time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation.  A time relative
            to the start time is indicated with +N, which is N seconds from
            the start time.  A time relative to the current time is
            indicated with now+N.  If no <option>end-time</option> is
            specified, 30 days from the start time is used as a default.
          </para>
        </listitem>
192 193 194 195
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-f <replaceable class="parameter">output-file</replaceable></term>
196 197 198 199 200
        <listitem>
          <para>
            The name of the output file containing the signed zone.  The
            default is to append <filename>.signed</filename> to
            the
201
            input filename.
202 203
          </para>
        </listitem>
204 205 206 207
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-h</term>
208 209 210 211 212 213
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
            <command>dnssec-signzone</command>.
          </para>
        </listitem>
214 215 216 217
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-i <replaceable class="parameter">interval</replaceable></term>
218 219
        <listitem>
          <para>
220
            When a previously-signed zone is passed as input, records
221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238
            may be resigned.  The <option>interval</option> option
            specifies the cycle interval as an offset from the current
            time (in seconds).  If a RRSIG record expires after the
            cycle interval, it is retained.  Otherwise, it is considered
            to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.
          </para>
          <para>
            The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference
            between the signature end and start times.  So if neither
            <option>end-time</option> or <option>start-time</option>
            are specified, <command>dnssec-signzone</command>
            generates
            signatures that are valid for 30 days, with a cycle
            interval of 7.5 days.  Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records
            are due to expire in less than 7.5 days, they would be
            replaced.
          </para>
        </listitem>
239 240
      </varlistentry>

241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-I <replaceable class="parameter">input-format</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            The format of the input zone file.
	    Possible formats are <command>"text"</command> (default)
	    and <command>"raw"</command>.
	    This option is primarily intended to be used for dynamic
            signed zones so that the dumped zone file in a non-text
            format containing updates can be signed directly.
	    The use of this option does not make much sense for
	    non-dynamic zones.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

257
      <varlistentry>
258 259 260 261 262 263
        <term>-j <replaceable class="parameter">jitter</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime, all
            RRSIG records issued at the time of signing expires
            simultaneously.  If the zone is incrementally signed, i.e.
264 265
            a previously-signed zone is passed as input to the signer,
            all expired signatures have to be regenerated at about the
266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278
            same time.  The <option>jitter</option> option specifies a
            jitter window that will be used to randomize the signature
            expire time, thus spreading incremental signature
            regeneration over time.
          </para>
          <para>
            Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits
            validators and servers by spreading out cache expiration,
            i.e. if large numbers of RRSIGs don't expire at the same time
            from all caches there will be less congestion than if all
            validators need to refetch at mostly the same time.
          </para>
        </listitem>
279 280
      </varlistentry>

281 282
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-n <replaceable class="parameter">ncpus</replaceable></term>
283 284 285 286 287 288
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the number of threads to use.  By default, one
            thread is started for each detected CPU.
          </para>
        </listitem>
289 290
      </varlistentry>

291 292 293 294 295 296
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-N <replaceable class="parameter">soa-serial-format</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            The SOA serial number format of the signed zone.
	    Possible formats are <command>"keep"</command> (default),
Mark Andrews's avatar
Mark Andrews committed
297
            <command>"increment"</command> and
298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328
	    <command>"unixtime"</command>.
          </para>

          <variablelist>
	    <varlistentry>
	      <term><command>"keep"</command></term>
              <listitem>
                <para>Do not modify the SOA serial number.</para>
	      </listitem>
            </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term><command>"increment"</command></term>
              <listitem>
                <para>Increment the SOA serial number using RFC 1982
                      arithmetics.</para>
	      </listitem>
            </varlistentry>

	    <varlistentry>
	      <term><command>"unixtime"</command></term>
              <listitem>
                <para>Set the SOA serial number to the number of seconds
	        since epoch.</para>
	      </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
	 </variablelist>

        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

329 330
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-o <replaceable class="parameter">origin</replaceable></term>
331 332 333 334 335 336
        <listitem>
          <para>
            The zone origin.  If not specified, the name of the zone file
            is assumed to be the origin.
          </para>
        </listitem>
337 338
      </varlistentry>

339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-O <replaceable class="parameter">output-format</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            The format of the output file containing the signed zone.
	    Possible formats are <command>"text"</command> (default)
	    and <command>"raw"</command>.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

350 351
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-p</term>
352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone.  This is faster,
            but less secure, than using real random data.  This option
            may be useful when signing large zones or when the entropy
            source is limited.
          </para>
        </listitem>
360 361
      </varlistentry>

362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-P</term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
	    Disable post sign verification tests.
          </para>
          <para>
	    The post sign verification test ensures that for each algorithm
	    in use there is at least one non revoked self signed KSK key.
	    That all revoked KSK keys are self signed.  That all records
	    in the zone are signed by the algorithm.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

377 378
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-r <replaceable class="parameter">randomdev</replaceable></term>
379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the source of randomness.  If the operating
            system does not provide a <filename>/dev/random</filename>
            or equivalent device, the default source of randomness
            is keyboard input.  <filename>randomdev</filename>
            specifies
            the name of a character device or file containing random
            data to be used instead of the default.  The special value
            <filename>keyboard</filename> indicates that keyboard
            input should be used.
          </para>
        </listitem>
392 393 394 395
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-t</term>
396 397 398 399 400
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Print statistics at completion.
          </para>
        </listitem>
401 402 403 404
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-v <replaceable class="parameter">level</replaceable></term>
405 406 407 408 409
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the debugging level.
          </para>
        </listitem>
410 411
      </varlistentry>

412 413
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-z</term>
414 415 416 417 418
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign.
          </para>
        </listitem>
419 420
      </varlistentry>

421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-3 <replaceable class="parameter">salt</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Generate a NSEC3 chain with the given hex encoded salt.
	    A dash (<replaceable class="parameter">salt</replaceable>) can
	    be used to indicate that no salt is to be used when generating		    the NSEC3 chain.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-H <replaceable class="parameter">iterations</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
	    When generating a NSEC3 chain use this many interations.  The
	    default is 100.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-A</term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
	    When generating a NSEC3 chain set the OPTOUT flag on all
	    NSEC3 records and do not generate NSEC3 records for insecure
	    delegations.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

453 454
      <varlistentry>
        <term>zonefile</term>
455 456 457 458 459
        <listitem>
          <para>
            The file containing the zone to be signed.
          </para>
        </listitem>
460 461 462 463
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>key</term>
464 465
        <listitem>
          <para>
466 467 468 469 470
	    Specify which keys should be used to sign the zone.  If
	    no keys are specified, then the zone will be examined
	    for DNSKEY records at the zone apex.  If these are found and
	    there are matching private keys, in the current directory,
	    then these will be used for signing.
471 472
          </para>
        </listitem>
473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480
      </varlistentry>

    </variablelist>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>EXAMPLE</title>
    <para>
481
      The following command signs the <userinput>example.com</userinput>
482 483 484 485 486
      zone with the DSA key generated by <command>dnssec-keygen</command>
      (Kexample.com.+003+17247).  The zone's keys must be in the master
      file (<filename>db.example.com</filename>).  This invocation looks
      for <filename>keyset</filename> files, in the current directory,
      so that DS records can be generated from them (<command>-g</command>).
487
    </para>
488 489 490 491
<programlisting>% dnssec-signzone -g -o example.com db.example.com \
Kexample.com.+003+17247
db.example.com.signed
%</programlisting>
492
    <para>
493
      In the above example, <command>dnssec-signzone</command> creates
494
      the file <filename>db.example.com.signed</filename>.  This
495
      file should be referenced in a zone statement in a
496
      <filename>named.conf</filename> file.
497
    </para>
498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505
    <para>
      This example re-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters.
      The private keys are assumed to be in the current directory.
    </para>
<programlisting>% cp db.example.com.signed db.example.com
% dnssec-signzone -o example.com db.example.com
db.example.com.signed
%</programlisting>
506 507 508 509
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>SEE ALSO</title>
510 511
    <para><citerefentry>
        <refentrytitle>dnssec-keygen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
512 513
      </citerefentry>,
      <citetitle>BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual</citetitle>,
514
      <citetitle>RFC 4033</citetitle>.
515 516 517 518 519
    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>AUTHOR</title>
520
    <para><corpauthor>Internet Systems Consortium</corpauthor>
521 522 523
    </para>
  </refsect1>

524
</refentry><!--
525 526 527 528
 - Local variables:
 - mode: sgml
 - End:
-->