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 - Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2013-2017  Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
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 - This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public
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<refentry xmlns:db="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" version="5.0" xml:id="man.rndc">
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  <info>
    <date>2014-08-15</date>
  </info>
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  <refentryinfo>
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    <corpname>ISC</corpname>
    <corpauthor>Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.</corpauthor>
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  </refentryinfo>

  <refmeta>
    <refentrytitle><application>rndc</application></refentrytitle>
    <manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
    <refmiscinfo>BIND9</refmiscinfo>
  </refmeta>

  <refnamediv>
    <refname><application>rndc</application></refname>
    <refpurpose>name server control utility</refpurpose>
  </refnamediv>

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  <docinfo>
    <copyright>
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      <year>2000</year>
      <year>2001</year>
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      <year>2004</year>
      <year>2005</year>
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      <year>2007</year>
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      <year>2013</year>
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      <year>2014</year>
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      <year>2015</year>
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      <year>2016</year>
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      <year>2017</year>
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      <holder>Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")</holder>
    </copyright>
  </docinfo>

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  <refsynopsisdiv>
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    <cmdsynopsis sepchar=" ">
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      <command>rndc</command>
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      <arg choice="opt" rep="norepeat"><option>-b <replaceable class="parameter">source-address</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg choice="opt" rep="norepeat"><option>-c <replaceable class="parameter">config-file</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg choice="opt" rep="norepeat"><option>-k <replaceable class="parameter">key-file</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg choice="opt" rep="norepeat"><option>-s <replaceable class="parameter">server</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg choice="opt" rep="norepeat"><option>-p <replaceable class="parameter">port</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg choice="opt" rep="norepeat"><option>-q</option></arg>
      <arg choice="opt" rep="norepeat"><option>-r</option></arg>
      <arg choice="opt" rep="norepeat"><option>-V</option></arg>
      <arg choice="opt" rep="norepeat"><option>-y <replaceable class="parameter">key_id</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg choice="req" rep="norepeat">command</arg>
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    </cmdsynopsis>
  </refsynopsisdiv>

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  <refsection><info><title>DESCRIPTION</title></info>
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    <para><command>rndc</command>
      controls the operation of a name
      server.  It supersedes the <command>ndc</command> utility
      that was provided in old BIND releases.  If
      <command>rndc</command> is invoked with no command line
      options or arguments, it prints a short summary of the
      supported commands and the available options and their
      arguments.
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    </para>
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    <para><command>rndc</command>
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      communicates with the name server over a TCP connection, sending
      commands authenticated with digital signatures.  In the current
      versions of
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      <command>rndc</command> and <command>named</command>,
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      the only supported authentication algorithms are HMAC-MD5
      (for compatibility), HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-SHA224, HMAC-SHA256
      (default), HMAC-SHA384 and HMAC-SHA512.
      They use a shared secret on each end of the connection.
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      This provides TSIG-style authentication for the command
      request and the name server's response.  All commands sent
      over the channel must be signed by a key_id known to the
      server.
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    </para>
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    <para><command>rndc</command>
      reads a configuration file to
      determine how to contact the name server and decide what
      algorithm and key it should use.
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    </para>
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  </refsection>
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  <refsection><info><title>OPTIONS</title></info>
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    <variablelist>
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      <varlistentry>
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	<term>-b <replaceable class="parameter">source-address</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Use <replaceable class="parameter">source-address</replaceable>
	    as the source address for the connection to the server.
	    Multiple instances are permitted to allow setting of both
	    the IPv4 and IPv6 source addresses.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>-c <replaceable class="parameter">config-file</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Use <replaceable class="parameter">config-file</replaceable>
	    as the configuration file instead of the default,
	    <filename>/etc/rndc.conf</filename>.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>-k <replaceable class="parameter">key-file</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Use <replaceable class="parameter">key-file</replaceable>
	    as the key file instead of the default,
	    <filename>/etc/rndc.key</filename>.  The key in
	    <filename>/etc/rndc.key</filename> will be used to
	    authenticate
	    commands sent to the server if the <replaceable class="parameter">config-file</replaceable>
	    does not exist.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>-s <replaceable class="parameter">server</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para><replaceable class="parameter">server</replaceable> is
	    the name or address of the server which matches a
	    server statement in the configuration file for
	    <command>rndc</command>.  If no server is supplied on the
	    command line, the host named by the default-server clause
	    in the options statement of the <command>rndc</command>
	    configuration file will be used.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>-p <replaceable class="parameter">port</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Send commands to TCP port
	    <replaceable class="parameter">port</replaceable>
	    instead
	    of BIND 9's default control channel port, 953.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>-q</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Quiet mode: Message text returned by the server
	    will not be printed except when there is an error.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
	<term>-r</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Instructs <command>rndc</command> to print the result code
	    returned by <command>named</command> after executing the
	    requested command (e.g., ISC_R_SUCCESS, ISC_R_FAILURE, etc).
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
	<term>-V</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Enable verbose logging.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>-y <replaceable class="parameter">key_id</replaceable></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Use the key <replaceable class="parameter">key_id</replaceable>
	    from the configuration file.
	    <replaceable class="parameter">key_id</replaceable>
	    must be
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	    known by <command>named</command> with the same algorithm and secret string
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	    in order for control message validation to succeed.
	    If no <replaceable class="parameter">key_id</replaceable>
	    is specified, <command>rndc</command> will first look
	    for a key clause in the server statement of the server
	    being used, or if no server statement is present for that
	    host, then the default-key clause of the options statement.
	    Note that the configuration file contains shared secrets
	    which are used to send authenticated control commands
	    to name servers.  It should therefore not have general read
	    or write access.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

    </variablelist>
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  </refsection>
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  <refsection><info><title>COMMANDS</title></info>
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    <para>
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      A list of commands supported by <command>rndc</command> can
      be seen by running <command>rndc</command> without arguments.
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    </para>
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    <para>
      Currently supported commands are:
    </para>

    <variablelist>
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      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>addzone <replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional> <replaceable>configuration</replaceable> </userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Add a zone while the server is running.  This
	    command requires the
	    <command>allow-new-zones</command> option to be set
	    to <userinput>yes</userinput>.  The
	    <replaceable>configuration</replaceable> string
	    specified on the command line is the zone
	    configuration text that would ordinarily be
	    placed in <filename>named.conf</filename>.
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    The configuration is saved in a file called
	    <filename><replaceable>name</replaceable>.nzf</filename>,
	    where <replaceable>name</replaceable> is the
	    name of the view, or if it contains characters
	    that are incompatible with use as a file name, a
	    cryptographic hash generated from the name
	    of the view.
	    When <command>named</command> is
	    restarted, the file will be loaded into the view
	    configuration, so that zones that were added
	    can persist after a restart.
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    This sample <command>addzone</command> command
	    would add the zone <literal>example.com</literal>
	    to the default view:
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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<prompt>$ </prompt><userinput>rndc addzone example.com '{ type master; file "example.com.db"; };'</userinput>
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    (Note the brackets and semi-colon around the zone
	    configuration text.)
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    See also <command>rndc delzone</command> and <command>rndc modzone</command>.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>delzone <optional>-clean</optional> <replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional> </userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Delete a zone while the server is running.
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    If the <option>-clean</option> argument is specified,
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	    the zone's master file (and journal file, if any)
	    will be deleted along with the zone.  Without the
	    <option>-clean</option> option, zone files must
	    be cleaned up by hand.  (If the zone is of
	    type "slave" or "stub", the files needing to
	    be cleaned up will be reported in the output
	    of the <command>rndc delzone</command> command.)
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    If the zone was originally added via
	    <command>rndc addzone</command>, then it will be
	    removed permanently. However, if it was originally
	    configured in <filename>named.conf</filename>, then
	    that original configuration is still in place; when
	    the server is restarted or reconfigured, the zone will
	    come back. To remove it permanently, it must also be
	    removed from <filename>named.conf</filename>
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    See also <command>rndc addzone</command> and <command>rndc modzone</command>.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>dnstap ( -reopen | -roll <optional><replaceable>number</replaceable></optional> )</userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Close and re-open DNSTAP output files.
	    <command>rndc dnstap -reopen</command> allows the output
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	    file to be renamed externally, so
	    that <command>named</command> can truncate and re-open it.
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	    <command>rndc dnstap -roll</command> causes the output file
	    to be rolled automatically, similar to log files; the most
	    recent output file has ".0" appended to its name; the
	    previous most recent output file is moved to ".1", and so on.
	    If <replaceable>number</replaceable> is specified, then the
	    number of backup log files is limited to that number.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>dumpdb <optional>-all|-cache|-zones|-adb|-bad|-fail</optional> <optional><replaceable>view ...</replaceable></optional></userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Dump the server's caches (default) and/or zones to
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	    the dump file for the specified views.  If no view
            is specified, all views are dumped.
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	    (See the <command>dump-file</command> option in
	    the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.)
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>flush</userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Flushes the server's cache.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>flushname</userinput> <replaceable>name</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional> </term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Flushes the given name from the view's DNS cache
	    and, if applicable, from the view's nameserver address
	    database, bad server cache and SERVFAIL cache.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>flushtree</userinput> <replaceable>name</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional> </term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Flushes the given name, and all of its subdomains,
	    from the view's DNS cache, address database,
	    bad server cache, and SERVFAIL cache.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>freeze <optional><replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional></optional></userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Suspend updates to a dynamic zone.  If no zone is
	    specified, then all zones are suspended.  This allows
	    manual edits to be made to a zone normally updated by
	    dynamic update.  It also causes changes in the
	    journal file to be synced into the master file.
	    All dynamic update attempts will be refused while
	    the zone is frozen.
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    See also <command>rndc thaw</command>.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
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      </varlistentry>
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      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>halt <optional>-p</optional></userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Stop the server immediately.  Recent changes
	    made through dynamic update or IXFR are not saved to
	    the master files, but will be rolled forward from the
	    journal files when the server is restarted.
	    If <option>-p</option> is specified <command>named</command>'s process id is returned.
	    This allows an external process to determine when <command>named</command>
	    had completed halting.
	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    See also <command>rndc stop</command>.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>loadkeys <replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional></userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Fetch all DNSSEC keys for the given zone
	    from the key directory.  If they are within
	    their publication period, merge them into the
	    zone's DNSKEY RRset.  Unlike <command>rndc
	    sign</command>, however, the zone is not
	    immediately re-signed by the new keys, but is
	    allowed to incrementally re-sign over time.
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    This command requires that the
	    <command>auto-dnssec</command> zone option
	    be set to <literal>maintain</literal>,
	    and also requires the zone to be configured to
	    allow dynamic DNS.
	    (See "Dynamic Update Policies" in the Administrator
	    Reference Manual for more details.)
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
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      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>managed-keys <replaceable>(status | refresh | sync)</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional></userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    When run with the "status" keyword, print the current
	    status of the managed-keys database for the specified
	    view, or for all views if none is specified.  When run
	    with the "refresh" keyword, force an immediate refresh
	    of all the managed-keys in the specified view, or all
	    views.  When run with the "sync" keyword, force an
	    immediate dump of the managed-keys database to disk (in
	    the file <filename>managed-keys.bind</filename> or
	    (<filename><replaceable>viewname</replaceable>.mkeys</filename>).
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>modzone <replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional> <replaceable>configuration</replaceable> </userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Modify the configuration of a zone while the server
	    is running.  This command requires the
	    <command>allow-new-zones</command> option to be
	    set to <userinput>yes</userinput>.  As with
	    <command>addzone</command>, the
	    <replaceable>configuration</replaceable> string
	    specified on the command line is the zone
	    configuration text that would ordinarily be
	    placed in <filename>named.conf</filename>.
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    If the zone was originally added via
	    <command>rndc addzone</command>, the configuration
	    changes will be recorded permanently and will still be
	    in effect after the server is restarted or reconfigured.
	    However, if it was originally configured in
	    <filename>named.conf</filename>, then that original
	    configuration is still in place; when the server is
	    restarted or reconfigured, the zone will revert to
	    its original configuration.  To make the changes
	    permanent, it must also be modified in
	    <filename>named.conf</filename>
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    See also <command>rndc addzone</command> and <command>rndc delzone</command>.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>notify <replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional></userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Resend NOTIFY messages for the zone.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>notrace</userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Sets the server's debugging level to 0.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    See also <command>rndc trace</command>.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>nta
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	<optional>( -d | -f | -r | -l <replaceable>duration</replaceable>)</optional>
	<replaceable>domain</replaceable>
	<optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional>
	</userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Sets a DNSSEC negative trust anchor (NTA)
	    for <option>domain</option>, with a lifetime of
	    <option>duration</option>.  The default lifetime is
	    configured in <filename>named.conf</filename> via the
	    <option>nta-lifetime</option> option, and defaults to
	    one hour.  The lifetime cannot exceed one week.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    A negative trust anchor selectively disables
	    DNSSEC validation for zones that are known to be
	    failing because of misconfiguration rather than
	    an attack.  When data to be validated is
	    at or below an active NTA (and above any other
	    configured trust anchors), <command>named</command> will
	    abort the DNSSEC validation process and treat the data as
	    insecure rather than bogus.  This continues until the
	    NTA's lifetime is elapsed.
	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    NTAs persist across restarts of the <command>named</command> server.
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	    The NTAs for a view are saved in a file called
	    <filename><replaceable>name</replaceable>.nta</filename>,
	    where <replaceable>name</replaceable> is the
	    name of the view, or if it contains characters
	    that are incompatible with use as a file name, a
	    cryptographic hash generated from the name
	    of the view.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    An existing NTA can be removed by using the
	    <option>-remove</option> option.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    An NTA's lifetime can be specified with the
	    <option>-lifetime</option> option.  TTL-style
	    suffixes can be used to specify the lifetime in
	    seconds, minutes, or hours.  If the specified NTA
	    already exists, its lifetime will be updated to the
	    new value.  Setting <option>lifetime</option> to zero
	    is equivalent to <option>-remove</option>.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    If <option>-dump</option> is used, any other arguments
	    are ignored, and a list of existing NTAs is printed
	    (note that this may include NTAs that are expired but
	    have not yet been cleaned up).
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    Normally, <command>named</command> will periodically
	    test to see whether data below an NTA can now be
	    validated (see the <option>nta-recheck</option> option
	    in the Administrator Reference Manual for details).
	    If data can be validated, then the NTA is regarded as
	    no longer necessary, and will be allowed to expire
	    early.  The <option>-force</option> overrides this
	    behavior and forces an NTA to persist for its entire
	    lifetime, regardless of whether data could be
	    validated if the NTA were not present.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    All of these options can be shortened, i.e., to
	    <option>-l</option>, <option>-r</option>, <option>-d</option>,
	    and <option>-f</option>.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>querylog</userinput> <optional>on|off</optional> </term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Enable or disable query logging.  (For backward
	    compatibility, this command can also be used without
	    an argument to toggle query logging on and off.)
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    Query logging can also be enabled
	    by explicitly directing the <command>queries</command>
	    <command>category</command> to a
	    <command>channel</command> in the
	    <command>logging</command> section of
	    <filename>named.conf</filename> or by specifying
	    <command>querylog yes;</command> in the
	    <command>options</command> section of
	    <filename>named.conf</filename>.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>reconfig</userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Reload the configuration file and load new zones,
	    but do not reload existing zone files even if they
	    have changed.
	    This is faster than a full <command>reload</command> when there
	    is a large number of zones because it avoids the need
	    to examine the
	    modification times of the zones files.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>recursing</userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Dump the list of queries <command>named</command> is currently
	    recursing on, and the list of domains to which iterative
	    queries are currently being sent.  (The second list includes
	    the number of fetches currently active for the given domain,
	    and how many have been passed or dropped because of the
	    <option>fetches-per-zone</option> option.)
	  </para>
	</listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>refresh <replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional></userinput></term>
	<listitem>
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	  <para>
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	    Schedule zone maintenance for the given zone.
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	  </para>
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	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>reload</userinput></term>
	<listitem>
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	  <para>
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	    Reload configuration file and zones.
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	  </para>
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	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>reload <replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional></userinput></term>
	<listitem>
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	  <para>
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	    Reload the given zone.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>retransfer <replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional></userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	    Retransfer the given slave zone from the master server.
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    If the zone is configured to use
	    <command>inline-signing</command>, the signed
	    version of the zone is discarded; after the
	    retransfer of the unsigned version is complete, the
	    signed version will be regenerated with all new
	    signatures.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>scan</userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
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	     Scan the list of available network interfaces
	     for changes, without performing a full
	     <command>reconfig</command> or waiting for the
	     <command>interface-interval</command> timer.
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	  </para>
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	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>secroots <optional>-</optional> <optional><replaceable>view ...</replaceable></optional></userinput></term>
	<listitem>
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	  <para>
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	    Dump the server's security roots and negative trust anchors
	    for the specified views.  If no view is specified, all views
	    are dumped.
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	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    If the first argument is "-", then the output is
	    returned via the <command>rndc</command> response channel
	    and printed to the standard output.
	    Otherwise, it is written to the secroots dump file, which
	    defaults to <filename>named.secroots</filename>, but can be
	    overridden via the <option>secroots-file</option> option in
	    <filename>named.conf</filename>.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    See also <command>rndc managed-keys</command>.
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	  </para>
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	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>showzone <replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional> </userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Print the configuration of a running zone.
	  </para>
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	  <para>
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	    See also <command>rndc zonestatus</command>.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>sign <replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional></userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Fetch all DNSSEC keys for the given zone
	    from the key directory (see the
	    <command>key-directory</command> option in
	    the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual).  If they are within
	    their publication period, merge them into the
	    zone's DNSKEY RRset.  If the DNSKEY RRset
	    is changed, then the zone is automatically
	    re-signed with the new key set.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    This command requires that the
	    <command>auto-dnssec</command> zone option be set
	    to <literal>allow</literal> or
	    <literal>maintain</literal>,
	    and also requires the zone to be configured to
	    allow dynamic DNS.
	    (See "Dynamic Update Policies" in the Administrator
	    Reference Manual for more details.)
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    See also <command>rndc loadkeys</command>.
	  </para>
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	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>signing <optional>( -list | -clear <replaceable>keyid/algorithm</replaceable> | -clear <literal>all</literal> | -nsec3param ( <replaceable>parameters</replaceable> | <literal>none</literal> ) | -serial <replaceable>value</replaceable> ) </optional> <replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional> </userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    List, edit, or remove the DNSSEC signing state records
	    for the specified zone.  The status of ongoing DNSSEC
	    operations (such as signing or generating
	    NSEC3 chains) is stored in the zone in the form
	    of DNS resource records of type
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	    <command>sig-signing-type</command>.
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	    <command>rndc signing -list</command> converts
	    these records into a human-readable form,
	    indicating which keys are currently signing
	    or have finished signing the zone, and which NSEC3
	    chains are being created or removed.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    <command>rndc signing -clear</command> can remove
	    a single key (specified in the same format that
	    <command>rndc signing -list</command> uses to
	    display it), or all keys.  In either case, only
	    completed keys are removed; any record indicating
	    that a key has not yet finished signing the zone
	    will be retained.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    <command>rndc signing -nsec3param</command> sets
	    the NSEC3 parameters for a zone.  This is the
	    only supported mechanism for using NSEC3 with
	    <command>inline-signing</command> zones.
	    Parameters are specified in the same format as
	    an NSEC3PARAM resource record: hash algorithm,
	    flags, iterations, and salt, in that order.
	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    Currently, the only defined value for hash algorithm
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	    is <literal>1</literal>, representing SHA-1.
	    The <option>flags</option> may be set to
	    <literal>0</literal> or <literal>1</literal>,
	    depending on whether you wish to set the opt-out
	    bit in the NSEC3 chain.  <option>iterations</option>
	    defines the number of additional times to apply
	    the algorithm when generating an NSEC3 hash.  The
	    <option>salt</option> is a string of data expressed
	    in hexadecimal, a hyphen (`-') if no salt is
	    to be used, or the keyword <literal>auto</literal>,
	    which causes <command>named</command> to generate a
	    random 64-bit salt.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    So, for example, to create an NSEC3 chain using
	    the SHA-1 hash algorithm, no opt-out flag,
	    10 iterations, and a salt value of "FFFF", use:
	    <command>rndc signing -nsec3param 1 0 10 FFFF <replaceable>zone</replaceable></command>.
	    To set the opt-out flag, 15 iterations, and no
	    salt, use:
	    <command>rndc signing -nsec3param 1 1 15 - <replaceable>zone</replaceable></command>.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    <command>rndc signing -nsec3param none</command>
	    removes an existing NSEC3 chain and replaces it
	    with NSEC.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    <command>rndc signing -serial value</command> sets
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	    the serial number of the zone to value.  If the value
	    would cause the serial number to go backwards it will
	    be rejected.  The primary use is to set the serial on
	    inline signed zones.
	  </para>
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	</listitem>
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      </varlistentry>
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      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>stats</userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Write server statistics to the statistics file.
	    (See the <command>statistics-file</command> option in
	    the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.)
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>status</userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Display status of the server.
	    Note that the number of zones includes the internal <command>bind/CH</command> zone
	    and the default <command>./IN</command>
	    hint zone if there is not an
	    explicit root zone configured.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>stop <optional>-p</optional></userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Stop the server, making sure any recent changes
	    made through dynamic update or IXFR are first saved to
	    the master files of the updated zones.
	    If <option>-p</option> is specified <command>named</command>'s process id is returned.
	    This allows an external process to determine when <command>named</command>
	    had completed stopping.
	  </para>
	  <para>See also <command>rndc halt</command>.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>sync <optional>-clean</optional> <optional><replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional></optional></userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Sync changes in the journal file for a dynamic zone
	    to the master file.  If the "-clean" option is
	    specified, the journal file is also removed.  If
	    no zone is specified, then all zones are synced.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>tcp-timeouts <optional><replaceable>initial</replaceable> <replaceable>idle</replaceable> <replaceable>keepalive</replaceable> <replaceable>advertised</replaceable></optional></userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    When called without arguments, display the current
            values of the <command>tcp-initial-timeout</command>,
	    <command>tcp-idle-timeout</command>,
	    <command>tcp-keepalive-timeout</command> and
	    <command>tcp-advertised-timeout</command> options.
            When called with arguments, update these values. This
            allows an administrator to make rapid adjustments when
            under a denial of service attack.  See the descriptions of
            these options in the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual
            for details of their use.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>thaw <optional><replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional></optional></userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Enable updates to a frozen dynamic zone.  If no
	    zone is specified, then all frozen zones are
	    enabled.  This causes the server to reload the zone
	    from disk, and re-enables dynamic updates after the
	    load has completed.  After a zone is thawed,
	    dynamic updates will no longer be refused.  If
	    the zone has changed and the
	    <command>ixfr-from-differences</command> option is
	    in use, then the journal file will be updated to
	    reflect changes in the zone.  Otherwise, if the
	    zone has changed, any existing journal file will be
	    removed.
	  </para>
	  <para>See also <command>rndc freeze</command>.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>trace</userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Increment the servers debugging level by one.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>trace <replaceable>level</replaceable></userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Sets the server's debugging level to an explicit
	    value.
	  </para>
	  <para>
	    See also <command>rndc notrace</command>.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>tsig-delete</userinput> <replaceable>keyname</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Delete a given TKEY-negotiated key from the server.
	    (This does not apply to statically configured TSIG
	    keys.)
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>tsig-list</userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    List the names of all TSIG keys currently configured
	    for use by <command>named</command> in each view.  The
	    list both statically configured keys and dynamic
	    TKEY-negotiated keys.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><userinput>validation ( on | off | check ) <optional><replaceable>view ...</replaceable></optional> </userinput></term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Enable, disable, or check the current status of
	    DNSSEC validation.
	    Note <command>dnssec-enable</command> also needs to be
	    set to <userinput>yes</userinput> or
	    <userinput>auto</userinput> to be effective.
	    It defaults to enabled.
	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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	<term><userinput>zonestatus <replaceable>zone</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>class</replaceable> <optional><replaceable>view</replaceable></optional></optional></userinput></term>
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	<listitem>
	  <para>
	    Displays the current status of the given zone,
	    including the master file name and any include
	    files from which it was loaded, when it was most
	    recently loaded, the current serial number, the
	    number of nodes, whether the zone supports
	    dynamic updates, whether the zone is DNSSEC
	    signed, whether it uses automatic DNSSEC key
	    management or inline signing, and the scheduled
	    refresh or expiry times for the zone.
	  </para>
	  <para>
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	    See also <command>rndc showzone</command>.
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	  </para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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    </variablelist>
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    <para>
      <command>rndc</command> commands that specify zone names,
      such as <command>reload</command>, <command>retransfer</command>
      or <command>zonestatus</command>, can be ambiguous when applied
      to zones of type <option>redirect</option>. Redirect zones are
      always called ".", and can be confused with zones of type
      <option>hint</option> or with slaved copies of the root zone.
      To specify a redirect zone, use the special zone name
      <userinput>-redirect</userinput>, without a trailing period.
      (With a trailing period, this would specify a zone called
      "-redirect".)
    </para>
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  </refsection>
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  <refsection><info><title>LIMITATIONS</title></info>
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    <para>
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      There is currently no way to provide the shared secret for a
      <option>key_id</option> without using the configuration file.
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    </para>
    <para>
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      Several error messages could be clearer.
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    </para>
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  </refsection>
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  <refsection><info><title>SEE ALSO</title></info>
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    <para><citerefentry>
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	<refentrytitle>rndc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
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      </citerefentry>,
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      <citerefentry>
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	<refentrytitle>rndc-confgen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
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      </citerefentry>,
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      <citerefentry>
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	<refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
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      </citerefentry>,
      <citerefentry>
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	<refentrytitle>named.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum>
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      </citerefentry>,
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      <citerefentry>
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	<refentrytitle>ndc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
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      </citerefentry>,
      <citetitle>BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual</citetitle>.
    </para>
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  </refsection>
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</refentry>