Commit a67dac5d authored by Matthijs Mekking's avatar Matthijs Mekking 🏡

Add documentation

parent 3b7c849a
Copyright (C) Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
See COPYRIGHT in the source root or http://isc.org/copyright.html for terms.
# Unsupported algorithms in BIND 9
Following RFC 6944 and jumping ahead to draft-ietf-dnsop-algorithm-update-04,
BIND 9 takes preparations to remove support for deprecated DNSSEC algorithms.
These include RSAMD5, DSA, and ECC-GOST.
How does this impact BIND 9 behavior? In order to determine this, we first
need to establish in what contexts can DNSSEC algorithms be used. Two logical
categories of such contexts can be identified: signing and validation.
## DNSSEC signing
### DNSSEC tools
BIND 9 DNSSEC tools do not allow generating new keys using unsupported
algorithms:
$ dnssec-keygen -a RSAMD5 example.
dnssec-keygen: fatal: unsupported algorithm: 1
The tools also refuse to work with previously generated keys using unsupported
algorithms:
$ dnssec-dsfromkey Kexample.+001+53634
dnssec-dsfromkey: fatal: can't load Kexample.+001+53634.key: algorithm is unsupported
$ dnssec-signzone example.db Kexample.+001+53634
dnssec-signzone: fatal: cannot load dnskey Kexample.+001+53634: algorithm is unsupported
A DNSKEY RR with an unsupported algorithm may be *included* in a zone, as long
as it is not used for *signing* that zone.
BIND 9 also does not allow unsupported algorithms to be used with `auto-dnssec`:
zone "example" IN {
type master;
file "db/example.db";
key-directory "keys/example";
inline-signing yes;
auto-dnssec maintain;
}
...
dns_dnssec_findmatchingkeys: error reading key file Kexample.+001+53634.private: algorithm is unsupported
(DISCUSS: We might want to fail hard for such configurations.)
## DNSSEC validation
A validator has more possible interactions with unsupported algorithms:
* a key using one of these algorithms may be configured as a trust anchor,
* a DLV record for such a key may be placed in a DLV zone.
* upstream answers may contain signatures using such algorithms,
### Disabled algorithms
The `disable-algorithms` clause in `named.conf` can be used to prevent the
specified algorithms from being used when validating responses at and below a
certain name. For example, the following configuration:
disable-algorithms "example." { RSASHA512; };
will mark RSASHA512 as disabled at and below `example.`. This effectively
means that for this domain and all domains below it, the RSASHA512 algorithm is
treated as unsupported.
### Trust anchors
In BIND 9, trust anchors can be configured using two clauses:
* `trusted-keys`, which contains hardcoded (static) trust anchors,
* `managed-keys`, which will be kept up to date automatically, following the
zone's key rollovers (according to the algorithm specified in RFC 5011).
When put into the above clauses, keys using unsupported algorithms will be
ignored:
trusted.conf:3: skipping trusted key for 't.example.': algorithm is unsupported
managed.conf:3: skipping managed key for 'm.example.': algorithm is unsupported
BIND 9 also ignores any configured trust anchor whose owner name and algorithm
match any `disable-algorithms` clause present in `named.conf`.
If a given trust point is left with no trust anchors using supported
algorithms, BIND 9 will act as if the trust point was not configured at all and
if there are no trust points configured higher up the tree, names at the trust
point and below it will be treated as insecure.
Note that prior to BIND 9.13.6, configured trust anchors that matched disabled
algorithms were not ignored and that lead to SERVFAILs for associated domains.
This behavior has changed to be more consistent with unsupported algorithms:
BIND 9 will ignore such trust anchors, and responses for those domains will
now be treated as insecure.
### DLV
If a DLV record in a DLV zone points to a DNSKEY using an unsupported algorithm
or an algorithm which has been disabled for the relevant part of the tree using
a `disable-algorithms` clause in `named.conf`, the corresponding zone will be
treated as insecure.
However, if the trust anchor specified for the DLV zone itself uses an
unsupported or disabled algorithm, no DLV record in that DLV zone can be
treated as secure and thus attempts to resolve names in the domains pointed to
by the records in that DLV zone will yield SERVFAIL responses. Consider the
following example:
trusted-keys {
"dlv.example." 257 3 1 ...;
};
options {
...
dnssec-lookaside "foo." trust-anchor "dlv.example";
};
The example above specifies a DLV trust anchor using the RSAMD5 algorithm
(algorithm number 1), which effectively prevents resolution of data in any zone
at and below `foo.` that is listed in `dlv.example` (and does not have a valid,
non-DLV chain of trust established otherwise). This outcome is different than
for a trust anchor which uses an unsupported or disabled algorithm and is not
associated with a `dnssec-lookaside` clause; the reason for this is that in the
case of a DLV-referenced, unusable key, the trust point is still defined, but
has no keys associated with it, whereas non-DLV-referenced, unusable keys are
ignored altogether and do not cause an associated trust point to be defined.
### Algorithm rollover
A zone for which BIND 9 has a trust anchor configured may decide to do an
algorithm rollover to an unsupported algorithm. If configured with
`managed-keys`, BIND 9 will ignore the newly introduced DNSKEY if it does
not support the algorithm. That means that the moment the predecessor DNSKEY
gets revoked, BIND 9 will no longer have any trust anchors for the given zone
and it will treat the trust point as if it does not exist, meaning that
the corresponding zone will now validate as insecure.
...@@ -1534,6 +1534,7 @@ ...@@ -1534,6 +1534,7 @@
./doc/design/resolver TXT.BRIEF 1999,2000,2001,2004,2016,2018,2019 ./doc/design/resolver TXT.BRIEF 1999,2000,2001,2004,2016,2018,2019
./doc/design/search TXT.BRIEF 1999,2000,2001,2004,2016,2018,2019 ./doc/design/search TXT.BRIEF 1999,2000,2001,2004,2016,2018,2019
./doc/design/tasks TXT.BRIEF 1999,2000,2001,2004,2016,2018,2019 ./doc/design/tasks TXT.BRIEF 1999,2000,2001,2004,2016,2018,2019
./doc/design/unsupported-algorithms-in-bind9 TXT.BRIEF 2019
./doc/design/verify TXT.BRIEF 2012,2016,2018,2019 ./doc/design/verify TXT.BRIEF 2012,2016,2018,2019
./doc/design/windows-nt TXT.BRIEF 1999,2000,2001,2004,2016,2018,2019 ./doc/design/windows-nt TXT.BRIEF 1999,2000,2001,2004,2016,2018,2019
./doc/design/zone TXT.BRIEF 1999,2000,2001,2004,2016,2018,2019 ./doc/design/zone TXT.BRIEF 1999,2000,2001,2004,2016,2018,2019
......
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