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Setting the STD_CDEFINES environment variable before running configure can
be used to enable certain compile-time options that are not explicitly
defined in configure.
Some of these settings are:
Setting Description
Don't ovewrite memory when allocating or freeing
-DISC_MEM_FILL=0 it; this improves performance but makes
debugging more difficult.
Don't track memory allocations by file and line
-DISC_MEM_TRACKLINES=0 number; this improves performance but makes
debugging more difficult.
-DISC_FACILITY=LOG_LOCAL0 Change the default syslog facility for named
-DNS_CLIENT_DROPPORT=0 Disable dropping queries from particular
well-known ports:
-DCHECK_SIBLING=0 Don't check sibling glue in named-checkzone
-DCHECK_LOCAL=0 Don't check out-of-zone addresses in
-DNS_RUN_PID_DIR=0 Create default PID files in ${localstatedir}/run
rather than ${localstatedir}/run/{named,lwresd}/
Enable DNSSEC signature chasing support in dig.
-DDIG_SIGCHASE=1 (Note: This feature is deprecated. Use delv
1. Introduction
2. Reporting bugs and getting help
3. Contributing to BIND
4. BIND 9.12 features
5. Building BIND
6. Compile-time options
7. Automated testing
8. Documentation
9. Change log
10. Acknowledgments
BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is a complete, highly portable
implementation of the DNS (Domain Name System) protocol.
The BIND name server, named, is able to serve as an authoritative name
server, recursive resolver, DNS forwarder, or all three simultaneously. It
implements views for split-horizon DNS, automatic DNSSEC zone signing and
key management, catalog zones to facilitate provisioning of zone data
throughout a name server constellation, response policy zones (RPZ) to
protect clients from malicious data, response rate limiting (RRL) and
recursive query limits to reduce distributed denial of service attacks,
and many other advanced DNS features. BIND also includes a suite of
administrative tools, including the dig and delv DNS lookup tools,
nsupdate for dynamic DNS zone updates, rndc for remote name server
administration, and more.
BIND 9 is a complete re-write of the BIND architecture that was used in
versions 4 and 8. Internet Systems Consortium (, a 501
(c)(3) public benefit corporation dedicated to providing software and
services in support of the Internet infrastructure, developed BIND 9 and
is responsible for its ongoing maintenance and improvement. BIND is open
source software licenced under the terms of the Mozilla Public License,
version 2.0.
For a summary of features introduced in past major releases of BIND, see
the file HISTORY.
For a detailed list of changes made throughout the history of BIND 9, see
the file CHANGES. See below for details on the CHANGES file format.
For up-to-date release notes and errata, see
Reporting bugs and getting help
Please report assertion failure errors and suspected security issues to
General bug reports can be sent to
Feature requests can be sent to
Please note that, while ISC's ticketing system is not currently publicly
readable, this may change in the future. Please do not include information
in bug reports that you consider to be confidential. For example, when
sending the contents of your configuration file, it is advisable to
obscure key secrets; this can be done automatically by using
named-checkconf -px.
Professional support and training for BIND are available from ISC at
To join the BIND Users mailing list, or view the archives, visit https://
If you're planning on making changes to the BIND 9 source code, you may
also want to join the BIND Workers mailing list, at
Contributing to BIND
A public git repository for BIND is maintained at,
and also on Github at
Information for BIND contributors can be found in the following files: -
General information: doc/dev/ - BIND 9 code style: doc/dev/ - BIND architecture and developer guide: doc/dev/
Patches for BIND may be submitted either as Github pull requests or via
email. When submitting a patch via email, please prepend the subject
header with "[PATCH]" so it will be easier for us to find. If your patch
introduces a new feature in BIND, please submit it to
; if it fixes a bug, please submit it to
BIND 9.12 features
BIND 9.12.0 is the newest development branch of BIND 9. It includes a
number of changes from BIND 9.11 and earlier releases. New features
* dnstap-read -x prints a hex dump of the wire format of each logged DNS
* The query handling code has been substantially refactored for improved
readability, maintainability and testability .
* dnstap output files can now be configured to roll automatically when
reaching a given size.
* Log file timestamps can now also be formatted in ISO 8601 (local) or
ISO 8601 (UTC) formats.
* Logging channels and dnstap output files can now be configured to use
a timestamp as the suffix when rolling to a new file.
* named-checkconf -l lists zones found in named.conf.
* Added support for the EDNS Padding and Keepalive options.
Building BIND
BIND requires a UNIX or Linux system with an ANSI C compiler, basic POSIX
support, and a 64-bit integer type. Successful builds have been observed
on many versions of Linux and UNIX, including RedHat, Fedora, Debian,
Ubuntu, SuSE, Slackware, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Mac OS X, Solaris,
HP-UX, AIX, SCO OpenServer, and OpenWRT.
BIND is also available for Windows XP, 2003, 2008, and higher. See
win32utils/readme1st.txt for details on building for Windows systems.
To build on a UNIX or Linux system, use:
$ ./configure
$ make
(NOTE: Using multiple processors in make is not reliable and is not
If you're planning on making changes to the BIND 9 source, you should run
make depend. If you're using Emacs, you might find make tags helpful.
Several environment variables that can be set before running configure
will affect compilation:
Variable Description
CC The C compiler to use. configure tries to figure out the
right one for supported systems.
C compiler flags. Defaults to include -g and/or -O2 as
CFLAGS supported by the compiler. Please include '-g' if you need
to set CFLAGS.
System header file directories. Can be used to specify
STD_CINCLUDES where add-on thread or IPv6 support is, for example.
Defaults to empty string.
Any additional preprocessor symbols you want defined.
STD_CDEFINES Defaults to empty string. For a list of possible settings,
see the file OPTIONS.
LDFLAGS Linker flags. Defaults to empty string.
BUILD_CC Needed when cross-compiling: the native C compiler to use
when building for the target system.
BUILD_CFLAGS Optional, used for cross-compiling
Compile-time options
To see a full list of configuration options, run configure --help.
On most platforms, BIND 9 is built with multithreading support, allowing
it to take advantage of multiple CPUs. You can configure this by
specifying --enable-threads or --disable-threads on the configure command
line. The default is to enable threads, except on some older operating
systems on which threads are known to have had problems in the past.
(Note: Prior to BIND 9.10, the default was to disable threads on Linux
systems; this has now been reversed. On Linux systems, the threaded build
is known to change BIND's behavior with respect to file permissions; it
may be necessary to specify a user with the -u option when running named.)
To build shared libraries, specify --with-libtool on the configure command
Certain compiled-in constants and default settings can be increased to
values better suited to large servers with abundant memory resources (e.g,
64-bit servers with 12G or more of memory) by specifying --with-tuning=
large on the configure command line. This can improve performance on big
servers, but will consume more memory and may degrade performance on
smaller systems.
For the server to support DNSSEC, you need to build it with crypto
support. To use OpenSSL, you should have OpenSSL 1.0.2e or newer
installed. If the OpenSSL library is installed in a nonstandard location,
specify the prefix using "--with-openssl=/prefix" on the configure command
line. To use a PKCS#11 hardware service module for cryptographic
operations, specify the path to the PKCS#11 provider library using
"--with-pkcs11=/prefix", and configure BIND with "--enable-native-pkcs11".
To support the HTTP statistics channel, the server must be linked with at
least one of the following: libxml2 or json-c https:// If these are installed at a nonstandard location,
specify the prefix using --with-libxml2=/prefix or --with-libjson=/prefix.
To support compression on the HTTP statistics channel, the server must be
linked against libzlib. If this is installed in a nonstandard location,
specify the prefix using --with-zlib=/prefix.
To support storing configuration data for runtime-added zones in an LMDB
database, the server must be linked with liblmdb. If this is installed in
a nonstandard location, specify the prefix using "with-lmdb=/prefix".
To support GeoIP location-based ACLs, the server must be linked with
libGeoIP. This is not turned on by default; BIND must be configured with
"--with-geoip". If the library is installed in a nonstandard location, use
specify the prefix using "--with-geoip=/prefix".
For DNSTAP packet logging, you must have libfstrm
farsightsec/fstrm and libprotobuf-c
protocol-buffers, and BIND must be configured with "--enable-dnstap".
Python requires the 'argparse' and 'ply' modules to be available.
'argparse' is a standard module as of Python 2.7 and Python 3.2. 'ply' is
available from
On some platforms it is necessary to explicitly request large file support
to handle files bigger than 2GB. This can be done by using
--enable-largefile on the configure command line.
Support for the "fixed" rrset-order option can be enabled or disabled by
specifying --enable-fixed-rrset or --disable-fixed-rrset on the configure
command line. By default, fixed rrset-order is disabled to reduce memory
If your operating system has integrated support for IPv6, it will be used
automatically. If you have installed KAME IPv6 separately, use --with-kame
[=PATH] to specify its location.
make install will install named and the various BIND 9 libraries. By
default, installation is into /usr/local, but this can be changed with the
--prefix option when running configure.
You may specify the option --sysconfdir to set the directory where
configuration files like named.conf go by default, and --localstatedir to
set the default parent directory of run/ For backwards
compatibility with BIND 8, --sysconfdir defaults to /etc and
--localstatedir defaults to /var if no --prefix option is given. If there
is a --prefix option, sysconfdir defaults to $prefix/etc and localstatedir
defaults to $prefix/var.
Automated testing
A system test suite can be run with make test. The system tests require
you to configure a set of virtual IP addresses on your system (this allows
multiple servers to run locally and communicate with one another). These
IP addresses can be configured by by running the script bin/tests/system/ up as root.
Some tests require Perl and the Net::DNS and/or IO::Socket::INET6 modules,
and will be skipped if these are not available. Some tests require Python
and the 'dnspython' module and will be skipped if these are not available.
See bin/tests/system/README for further details.
Unit tests are implemented using Automated Testing Framework (ATF). To run
them, use configure --with-atf, then run make test or make unit.
The BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual is included with the source
distribution, in DocBook XML, HTML and PDF format, in the doc/arm
Some of the programs in the BIND 9 distribution have man pages in their
directories. In particular, the command line options of named are
documented in bin/named/named.8.
Frequently (and not-so-frequently) asked questions and their answers can
be found in the ISC Knowledge Base at
Additional information on various subjects can be found in other README
files throughout the source tree.
Change log
A detailed list of all changes that have been made throughout the
development BIND 9 is included in the file CHANGES, with the most recent
changes listed first. Change notes include tags indicating the category of
the change that was made; these categories are:
Category Description
[func] New feature
[bug] General bug fix
[security] Fix for a significant security flaw
[experimental] Used for new features when the syntax or other aspects of
the design are still in flux and may change
[port] Portability enhancement
[maint] Updates to built-in data such as root server addresses and
[tuning] Changes to built-in configuration defaults and constants to
improve performance
[performance] Other changes to improve server performance
[protocol] Updates to the DNS protocol such as new RR types
[test] Changes to the automatic tests, not affecting server
[cleanup] Minor corrections and refactoring
[doc] Documentation
[contrib] Changes to the contributed tools and libraries in the
'contrib' subdirectory
Used in the master development branch to reserve change
[placeholder] numbers for use in other branches, e.g. when fixing a bug
that only exists in older releases
In general, [func] and [experimental] tags will only appear in new-feature
releases (i.e., those with version numbers ending in zero). Some new
functionality may be backported to older releases on a case-by-case basis.
All other change types may be applied to all currently-supported releases.
* The original development of BIND 9 was underwritten by the following
Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Hewlett Packard
Compaq Computer Corporation
Process Software Corporation
Silicon Graphics, Inc.
Network Associates, Inc.
U.S. Defense Information Systems Agency
USENIX Association
Stichting NLnet - NLnet Foundation
Nominum, Inc.
* This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for
use in the OpenSSL Toolkit.
* This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young
* This product includes software written by Tim Hudson
......@@ -69,7 +69,7 @@ Note 2: DH, HMAC\-MD5, and HMAC\-SHA1 through HMAC\-SHA512 automatically set the
\-b \fIkeysize\fR
.RS 4
Specifies the number of bits in the key\&. The choice of key size depends on the algorithm used\&. RSA keys must be between 512 and 2048 bits\&. Diffie Hellman keys must be between 128 and 4096 bits\&. DSA keys must be between 512 and 1024 bits and an exact multiple of 64\&. HMAC keys must be between 1 and 512 bits\&. Elliptic curve algorithms don\*(Aqt need this parameter\&.
Specifies the number of bits in the key\&. The choice of key size depends on the algorithm used\&. RSA keys must be between 1024 and 2048 bits\&. Diffie Hellman keys must be between 128 and 4096 bits\&. DSA keys must be between 512 and 1024 bits and an exact multiple of 64\&. HMAC keys must be between 1 and 512 bits\&. Elliptic curve algorithms don\*(Aqt need this parameter\&.
The key size does not need to be specified if using a default algorithm\&. The default key size is 1024 bits for zone signing keys (ZSKs) and 2048 bits for key signing keys (KSKs, generated with
\fB\-f KSK\fR)\&. However, if an algorithm is explicitly specified with the
......@@ -123,7 +123,7 @@
Specifies the number of bits in the key. The choice of key
size depends on the algorithm used. RSA keys must be
between 512 and 2048 bits. Diffie Hellman keys must be between
between 1024 and 2048 bits. Diffie Hellman keys must be between
128 and 4096 bits. DSA keys must be between 512 and 1024
bits and an exact multiple of 64. HMAC keys must be
between 1 and 512 bits. Elliptic curve algorithms don't need
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......@@ -214,7 +214,7 @@ causes the output file to be rolled automatically, similar to log files; the mos
is specified, then the number of backup log files is limited to that number\&.
\fBdumpdb \fR\fB[\-all|\-cache|\-zone|\-adb|\-bad|\-fail]\fR\fB \fR\fB[\fIview \&.\&.\&.\fR]\fR
\fBdumpdb \fR\fB[\-all|\-cache|\-zones|\-adb|\-bad|\-fail]\fR\fB \fR\fB[\fIview \&.\&.\&.\fR]\fR
.RS 4
Dump the server\*(Aqs caches (default) and/or zones to the dump file for the specified views\&. If no view is specified, all views are dumped\&. (See the
......@@ -274,14 +274,12 @@
number of backup log files is limited to that number.
<dt><span class="term"><strong class="userinput"><code>dumpdb [<span class="optional">-all|-cache|-zone|-adb|-bad|-fail</span>] [<span class="optional"><em class="replaceable"><code>view ...</code></em></span>]</code></strong></span></dt>
<dt><span class="term"><strong class="userinput"><code>dumpdb [<span class="optional">-all|-cache|-zones|-adb|-bad|-fail</span>] [<span class="optional"><em class="replaceable"><code>view ...</code></em></span>]</code></strong></span></dt>
Dump the server's caches (default) and/or zones to
dump file for the specified views. If no view is
specified, all
views are dumped.
the dump file for the specified views. If no view
is specified, all views are dumped.
(See the <span class="command"><strong>dump-file</strong></span> option in
the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual.)
......@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@
dnstap-read \- print dnstap data in human\-readable form
.HP \w'\fBdnstap\-read\fR\ 'u
\fBdnstap\-read\fR [\fB\-m\fR] [\fB\-p\fR] [\fB\-y\fR] {\fIfile\fR}
\fBdnstap\-read\fR [\fB\-m\fR] [\fB\-p\fR] [\fB\-x\fR] [\fB\-y\fR] {\fIfile\fR}
......@@ -66,6 +66,15 @@ data, print the text form of the DNS message that was encapsulated in the
.RS 4
After printing the
data, print a hex dump of the wire form of the DNS message that was encapsulated in the
.RS 4
......@@ -35,6 +35,7 @@
<code class="command">dnstap-read</code>
[<code class="option">-m</code>]
[<code class="option">-p</code>]
[<code class="option">-x</code>]
[<code class="option">-y</code>]
{<em class="replaceable"><code>file</code></em>}
......@@ -72,6 +73,14 @@
<span class="command"><strong>dnstap</strong></span> frame.
<dt><span class="term">-x</span></dt>
After printing the <span class="command"><strong>dnstap</strong></span> data, print
a hex dump of the wire form of the DNS message that was
encapsulated in the <span class="command"><strong>dnstap</strong></span> frame.
<dt><span class="term">-y</span></dt>
......@@ -956,7 +956,6 @@ infodir
......@@ -1112,7 +1111,6 @@ datadir='${datarootdir}'
......@@ -1365,15 +1363,6 @@ do
| -silent | --silent | --silen | --sile | --sil)
silent=yes ;;
-runstatedir | --runstatedir | --runstatedi | --runstated \
| --runstate | --runstat | --runsta | --runst | --runs \
| --run | --ru | --r)
ac_prev=runstatedir ;;
-runstatedir=* | --runstatedir=* | --runstatedi=* | --runstated=* \
| --runstate=* | --runstat=* | --runsta=* | --runst=* | --runs=* \
| --run=* | --ru=* | --r=*)
runstatedir=$ac_optarg ;;
-sbindir | --sbindir | --sbindi | --sbind | --sbin | --sbi | --sb)
ac_prev=sbindir ;;
-sbindir=* | --sbindir=* | --sbindi=* | --sbind=* | --sbin=* \
......@@ -1511,7 +1500,7 @@ fi
for ac_var in exec_prefix prefix bindir sbindir libexecdir datarootdir \
datadir sysconfdir sharedstatedir localstatedir includedir \
oldincludedir docdir infodir htmldir dvidir pdfdir psdir \
libdir localedir mandir runstatedir
libdir localedir mandir
eval ac_val=\$$ac_var
# Remove trailing slashes.
......@@ -1664,7 +1653,6 @@ Fine tuning of the installation directories:
--sysconfdir=DIR read-only single-machine data [PREFIX/etc]
--sharedstatedir=DIR modifiable architecture-independent data [PREFIX/com]
--localstatedir=DIR modifiable single-machine data [PREFIX/var]
--runstatedir=DIR modifiable per-process data [LOCALSTATEDIR/run]
--libdir=DIR object code libraries [EPREFIX/lib]
--includedir=DIR C header files [PREFIX/include]
--oldincludedir=DIR C header files for non-gcc [/usr/include]
......@@ -83,11 +83,6 @@
option can be used to limit the amount of memory used by the cache,
at the expense of reducing cache hit rates and causing more <acronym class="acronym">DNS</acronym>
Additionally, if additional section caching
(<a class="xref" href="Bv9ARM.ch06.html#acache" title="Additional Section Caching">the section called &#8220;Additional Section Caching&#8221;</a>) is enabled,
the <span class="command"><strong>max-acache-size</strong></span> option can be used to
limit the amount
of memory used by the mechanism.
It is still good practice to have enough memory to load
all zone and cache data into memory &#8212; unfortunately, the best
......@@ -2644,8 +2644,6 @@ badresp:1,adberr:0,findfail:0,valfail:0]
[ <span class="command"><strong>nta-recheck</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>duration</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>port</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>ip_port</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>dscp</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>ip_dscp</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>additional-from-auth</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>yes_or_no</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>additional-from-cache</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>yes_or_no</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>random-device</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>path_name</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>max-cache-size</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>size_or_percent</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>match-mapped-addresses</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>yes_or_no</code></em> ; ]
......@@ -2671,9 +2669,6 @@ badresp:1,adberr:0,findfail:0,valfail:0]
[ <span class="command"><strong>querylog</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>yes_or_no</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>disable-algorithms</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>domain</code></em> <span class="command"><strong>{</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>algorithm</code></em> ; ... <span class="command"><strong>}</strong></span> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>disable-ds-digests</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>domain</code></em> <span class="command"><strong>{</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>digest_type</code></em> ; ... <span class="command"><strong>}</strong></span> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>acache-enable</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>yes_or_no</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>acache-cleaning-interval</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>number</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>max-acache-size</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>size_spec</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>max-recursion-depth</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>number</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>max-recursion-queries</strong></span> <em class="replaceable"><code>number</code></em> ; ]
[ <span class="command"><strong>masterfile-format</strong></span> ( <code class="option">text</code> | <code class="option">raw</code> | <code class="option">map</code> ) ; ]
......@@ -4197,7 +4192,7 @@ options {
both authoritative and recursive queries.
The default is <strong class="userinput"><code>no</code></strong>.
The default is <strong class="userinput"><code>yes</code></strong>.
<dt><span class="term"><span class="command"><strong>minimal-any</strong></span></span></dt>
......@@ -4527,92 +4522,6 @@ options {
and the option is ignored.
<span class="term"><span class="command"><strong>additional-from-auth</strong></span>, </span><span class="term"><span class="command"><strong>additional-from-cache</strong></span></span>
These options control the behavior of an authoritative
server when
answering queries which have additional data, or when
following CNAME
and DNAME chains.
When both of these options are set to <strong class="userinput"><code>yes</code></strong>
(the default) and a
query is being answered from authoritative data (a zone
configured into the server), the additional data section of
reply will be filled in using data from other authoritative
and from the cache. In some situations this is undesirable,
as when there is concern over the correctness of the cache,
in servers where slave zones may be added and modified by
untrusted third parties. Also, avoiding
the search for this additional data will speed up server
at the possible expense of additional queries to resolve
what would
otherwise be provided in the additional section.
For example, if a query asks for an MX record for host <code class="literal"></code>,
and the record found is "<code class="literal">MX 10</code>", normally the address
records (A and AAAA) for <code class="literal"></code> will be provided as well,
if known, even though they are not in the zone.
Setting these options to <span class="command"><strong>no</strong></span>
disables this behavior and makes
the server only search for additional data in the zone it
answers from.
These options are intended for use in authoritative-only
servers, or in authoritative-only views. Attempts to set
them to <span class="command"><strong>no</strong></span> without also
<span class="command"><strong>recursion no</strong></span> will cause the
server to
ignore the options and log a warning message.
Specifying <span class="command"><strong>additional-from-cache no</strong></span> actually
disables the use of the cache not only for additional data
but also when looking up the answer. This is usually the
behavior in an authoritative-only server where the
correctness of
the cached data is an issue.
When a name server is non-recursively queried for a name
that is not
below the apex of any served zone, it normally answers with
"upwards referral" to the root servers or the servers of
some other
known parent of the query name. Since the data in an
upwards referral
comes from the cache, the server will not be able to provide
referrals when <span class="command"><strong>additional-from-cache no</strong></span>
has been specified. Instead, it will respond to such
with REFUSED. This should not cause any problems since
upwards referrals are not required for the resolution
<dt><span class="term"><span class="command"><strong>match-mapped-addresses</strong></span></span></dt>
......@@ -6612,7 +6521,7 @@ avoid-v6-udp-ports { 40000; range 50000 60000; };
The response to a DNS query may consist of multiple resource
records (RRs) forming a resource records set (RRset).
records (RRs) forming a resource record set (RRset).
The name server will normally return the
RRs within the RRset in an indeterminate order
(but see the <span class="command"><strong>rrset-order</strong></span>
......@@ -6728,17 +6637,14 @@ avoid-v6-udp-ports { 40000; range 50000 60000; };
When multiple records are returned in an answer it may be
useful to configure the order of the records placed into the
The <span class="command"><strong>rrset-order</strong></span> statement permits