dnssec-keygen — DNSSEC key generation tool
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dnssec-keygen generates keys for DNSSEC (Secure DNS), as defined in RFC 2535 and RFC 4034. It can also generate keys for use with TSIG (Transaction Signatures) as defined in RFC 2845, or TKEY (Transaction Key) as defined in RFC 2930.
Selects the cryptographic algorithm. For DNSSEC keys, the value
algorithm must be one of RSAMD5, RSASHA1,
DSA, NSEC3RSASHA1, or NSEC3DSA. For TSIG/TKEY, the value must
be DH (Diffie Hellman), HMAC-MD5, HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-SHA224,
HMAC-SHA256, HMAC-SHA384, or HMAC-SHA512. These values are
If no algorithm is specified, then RSASHA1 will be used by
default, unless the
-3 option is specified,
in which case NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used instead.
Note 1: that for DNSSEC, RSASHA1 is a mandatory to implement algorithm, and DSA is recommended. For TSIG, HMAC-MD5 is mandatory.
Note 2: DH, HMAC-MD5, and HMAC-SHA1 through HMAC-SHA512 automatically set the -T KEY option.
Specifies the number of bits in the key. The choice of key size depends on the algorithm used. RSAMD5 / RSASHA1 keys must be between 512 and 2048 bits. Diffie Hellman keys must be between 128 and 4096 bits. DSA keys must be between 512 and 1024 bits and an exact multiple of 64. HMAC-MD5 keys must be between 1 and 512 bits.
The key size does not need to be specified if using a default
algorithm. The default key size is 1024 bits for zone signing
keys (ZSK's) and 2048 bits for key signing keys (KSK's,
-f KSK). However, if an
algorithm is explicitly specified with the
then there is no default key size, and the
must be used.
Specifies the owner type of the key. The value of
nametype must either be ZONE (for a DNSSEC
zone key (KEY/DNSKEY)), HOST or ENTITY (for a key associated with
a host (KEY)),
USER (for a key associated with a user(KEY)) or OTHER (DNSKEY).
These values are case insensitive. Defaults to ZONE for DNSKEY
Use an NSEC3-capable algorithm to generate a DNSSEC key. If this option is used and no algorithm is explicitly set on the command line, NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used by default.
Compatibility mode: generates an old-style key, without
any metadata. By default, dnssec-keygen
will include the key's creation date in the metadata stored
with the private key, and other dates may be set there as well
(publication date, activation date, etc). Keys that include
this data may be incompatible with older versions of BIND; the
-C option suppresses them.
Indicates that the DNS record containing the key should have the specified class. If not specified, class IN is used.
If generating an RSAMD5/RSASHA1 key, use a large exponent.
Set the specified flag in the flag field of the KEY/DNSKEY record. The only recognized flags are KSK (Key Signing Key) and REVOKE.
If generating a Diffie Hellman key, use this generator. Allowed values are 2 and 5. If no generator is specified, a known prime from RFC 2539 will be used if possible; otherwise the default is 2.
Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to dnssec-keygen.
Sets the directory in which the key files are to be written.
Deprecated in favor of -T KEY.
Sets the protocol value for the generated key. The protocol is a number between 0 and 255. The default is 3 (DNSSEC). Other possible values for this argument are listed in RFC 2535 and its successors.
Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating
system does not provide a
or equivalent device, the default source of randomness
is keyboard input.
the name of a character device or file containing random
data to be used instead of the default. The special value
keyboard indicates that keyboard
input should be used.
Specifies the strength value of the key. The strength is a number between 0 and 15, and currently has no defined purpose in DNSSEC.
Specifies the resource record type to use for the key.
rrtype must be either DNSKEY or KEY. The
default is DNSKEY when using a DNSSEC algorithm, but it can be
overridden to KEY for use with SIG(0).
Using any TSIG algorithm (HMAC-* or DH) forces this option to KEY.
Indicates the use of the key.
type must be
one of AUTHCONF, NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or NOCONF. The default
is AUTHCONF. AUTH refers to the ability to authenticate
data, and CONF the ability to encrypt data.
Sets the debugging level.
Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS. If the argument begins with a '+' or '-', it is interpreted as an offset from the present time. If such an offset is followed by one of the characters 'y', 'm', 'w', 'd', or 'h', then the offset is computed in years, months, weeks, days, or hours, respectively; otherwise it is computed in seconds.
Sets the date on which a key is to be published to the zone. After that date, the key will be included in the zone but will not be used to sign it.
Sets the date on which the key is to be activated. After that date, the key will be included and the zone and used to sign it.
Sets the date on which the key is to be revoked. After that date, the key will be flagged as revoked. It will be included in the zone and will be used to sign it.
Sets the date on which the key is to be unpublished. After that date, the key will no longer be included in the zone, but it may remain in the key repository.
Sets the date on which the key is to be deleted. After that date, the key can be removed from the key repository. NOTE: Keys are not currently deleted automatically; this field is included for informational purposes and for future development.
When dnssec-keygen completes
it prints a string of the form
to the standard output. This is an identification string for
the key it has generated.
nnnn is the key name.
aaa is the numeric representation
iiiii is the key identifier (or
creates two files, with names based
on the printed string.
contains the public key, and
Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.private contains the
.key file contains a DNS KEY record
can be inserted into a zone file (directly or with a $INCLUDE
.private file contains
fields. For obvious security reasons, this file does not have
general read permission.
files are generated for symmetric encryption algorithms such as
HMAC-MD5, even though the public and private key are equivalent.
To generate a 768-bit DSA key for the domain
example.com, the following command would be
dnssec-keygen -a DSA -b 768 -n ZONE example.com
The command would print a string of the form:
In this example, dnssec-keygen creates