dhcp4_test_utils.cc 20.3 KB
Newer Older
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
// Copyright (C) 2013  Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
//
// Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software for any
// purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
// copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
//
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ISC DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH
// REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
// AND FITNESS.  IN NO EVENT SHALL ISC BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT,
// INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM
// LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE
// OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
// PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

#include <config.h>

#include <asiolink/io_address.h>
#include <config/ccsession.h>
#include <dhcp4/tests/dhcp4_test_utils.h>
#include <dhcp/option4_addrlst.h>
#include <dhcp/option_int_array.h>
#include <dhcp/option_custom.h>
#include <dhcp/iface_mgr.h>
#include <dhcpsrv/cfgmgr.h>
25
#include <dhcpsrv/lease.h>
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126
#include <dhcpsrv/lease_mgr.h>
#include <dhcpsrv/lease_mgr_factory.h>

using namespace std;
using namespace isc::asiolink;


namespace isc {
namespace dhcp {
namespace test {

/// dummy server-id file location
static const char* SRVID_FILE = "server-id-test.txt";

Dhcpv4SrvTest::Dhcpv4SrvTest()
:rcode_(-1) {
    subnet_ = Subnet4Ptr(new Subnet4(IOAddress("192.0.2.0"), 24, 1000,
                                     2000, 3000));
    pool_ = Pool4Ptr(new Pool4(IOAddress("192.0.2.100"), IOAddress("192.0.2.110")));
    subnet_->addPool(pool_);

    CfgMgr::instance().deleteSubnets4();
    CfgMgr::instance().addSubnet4(subnet_);

    // Add Router option.
    Option4AddrLstPtr opt_routers(new Option4AddrLst(DHO_ROUTERS));
    opt_routers->setAddress(IOAddress("192.0.2.2"));
    subnet_->addOption(opt_routers, false, "dhcp4");

    // it's ok if that fails. There should not be such a file anyway
    unlink(SRVID_FILE);

    const IfaceMgr::IfaceCollection& ifaces = IfaceMgr::instance().getIfaces();

    // There must be some interface detected
    if (ifaces.empty()) {
        // We can't use ASSERT in constructor
        ADD_FAILURE() << "No interfaces detected.";
    }

    valid_iface_ = ifaces.begin()->getName();
}

void Dhcpv4SrvTest::addPrlOption(Pkt4Ptr& pkt) {

    OptionUint8ArrayPtr option_prl =
        OptionUint8ArrayPtr(new OptionUint8Array(Option::V4,
                                                 DHO_DHCP_PARAMETER_REQUEST_LIST));

    // Let's request options that have been configured for the subnet.
    option_prl->addValue(DHO_DOMAIN_NAME_SERVERS);
    option_prl->addValue(DHO_DOMAIN_NAME);
    option_prl->addValue(DHO_LOG_SERVERS);
    option_prl->addValue(DHO_COOKIE_SERVERS);
    // Let's also request the option that hasn't been configured. In such
    // case server should ignore request for this particular option.
    option_prl->addValue(DHO_LPR_SERVERS);
    // And add 'Parameter Request List' option into the DISCOVER packet.
    pkt->addOption(option_prl);
}

void Dhcpv4SrvTest::configureRequestedOptions() {
    // dns-servers
    Option4AddrLstPtr
        option_dns_servers(new Option4AddrLst(DHO_DOMAIN_NAME_SERVERS));
    option_dns_servers->addAddress(IOAddress("192.0.2.1"));
    option_dns_servers->addAddress(IOAddress("192.0.2.100"));
    ASSERT_NO_THROW(subnet_->addOption(option_dns_servers, false, "dhcp4"));

    // domain-name
    OptionDefinition def("domain-name", DHO_DOMAIN_NAME, OPT_FQDN_TYPE);
    OptionCustomPtr option_domain_name(new OptionCustom(def, Option::V4));
    option_domain_name->writeFqdn("example.com");
    subnet_->addOption(option_domain_name, false, "dhcp4");

    // log-servers
    Option4AddrLstPtr option_log_servers(new Option4AddrLst(DHO_LOG_SERVERS));
    option_log_servers->addAddress(IOAddress("192.0.2.2"));
    option_log_servers->addAddress(IOAddress("192.0.2.10"));
    ASSERT_NO_THROW(subnet_->addOption(option_log_servers, false, "dhcp4"));

    // cookie-servers
    Option4AddrLstPtr option_cookie_servers(new Option4AddrLst(DHO_COOKIE_SERVERS));
    option_cookie_servers->addAddress(IOAddress("192.0.2.1"));
    ASSERT_NO_THROW(subnet_->addOption(option_cookie_servers, false, "dhcp4"));
}

void Dhcpv4SrvTest::messageCheck(const Pkt4Ptr& q, const Pkt4Ptr& a) {
    ASSERT_TRUE(q);
    ASSERT_TRUE(a);

    EXPECT_EQ(q->getHops(),   a->getHops());
    EXPECT_EQ(q->getIface(),  a->getIface());
    EXPECT_EQ(q->getIndex(),  a->getIndex());
    EXPECT_EQ(q->getGiaddr(), a->getGiaddr());
    // When processing an incoming packet the remote address
    // is copied as a src address, and the source address is
    // copied as a remote address to the response.
    EXPECT_TRUE(q->getLocalHWAddr() == a->getLocalHWAddr());
    EXPECT_TRUE(q->getRemoteHWAddr() == a->getRemoteHWAddr());

127 128
    // Check that the server identifier is present in the response.
    // Presence (or absence) of other options is checked elsewhere.
129 130 131 132 133 134
    EXPECT_TRUE(a->getOption(DHO_DHCP_SERVER_IDENTIFIER));

    // Check that something is offered
    EXPECT_TRUE(a->getYiaddr().toText() != "0.0.0.0");
}

135 136 137 138 139
::testing::AssertionResult
Dhcpv4SrvTest::basicOptionsPresent(const Pkt4Ptr& pkt) {
    std::ostringstream errmsg;
    errmsg << "option missing in the response";
    if (!pkt->getOption(DHO_DOMAIN_NAME)) {
140 141
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "domain-name " << errmsg));
142 143

    } else if (!pkt->getOption(DHO_DOMAIN_NAME_SERVERS)) {
144 145
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "dns-servers " << errmsg));
146 147

    } else if (!pkt->getOption(DHO_SUBNET_MASK)) {
148 149
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "subnet-mask " << errmsg));
150 151

    } else if (!pkt->getOption(DHO_ROUTERS)) {
152 153
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message() << "routers "
                                            << errmsg));
154 155

    } else if (!pkt->getOption(DHO_DHCP_LEASE_TIME)) {
156 157
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message() <<
                                            "dhcp-lease-time " << errmsg));
158 159 160 161

    }
    return (::testing::AssertionSuccess());

162 163
}

164 165 166 167 168
::testing::AssertionResult
Dhcpv4SrvTest::noBasicOptions(const Pkt4Ptr& pkt) {
    std::ostringstream errmsg;
    errmsg << "option present in the response";
    if (pkt->getOption(DHO_DOMAIN_NAME)) {
169 170
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "domain-name " << errmsg));
171 172

    } else if (pkt->getOption(DHO_DOMAIN_NAME_SERVERS)) {
173 174
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "dns-servers " << errmsg));
175 176

    } else if (pkt->getOption(DHO_SUBNET_MASK)) {
177 178
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "subnet-mask " << errmsg));
179 180

    } else if (pkt->getOption(DHO_ROUTERS)) {
181 182
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message() << "routers "
                                            << errmsg));
183 184

    } else if (pkt->getOption(DHO_DHCP_LEASE_TIME)) {
185 186
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "dhcp-lease-time " << errmsg));
187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196

    }
    return (::testing::AssertionSuccess());
}

::testing::AssertionResult
Dhcpv4SrvTest::requestedOptionsPresent(const Pkt4Ptr& pkt) {
    std::ostringstream errmsg;
    errmsg << "option missing in the response";
    if (!pkt->getOption(DHO_LOG_SERVERS)) {
197 198
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "log-servers " << errmsg));
199 200

    } else if (!pkt->getOption(DHO_COOKIE_SERVERS)) {
201 202
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "cookie-servers " << errmsg));
203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212

    }
    return (::testing::AssertionSuccess());
}

::testing::AssertionResult
Dhcpv4SrvTest::noRequestedOptions(const Pkt4Ptr& pkt) {
    std::ostringstream errmsg;
    errmsg << "option present in the response";
    if (pkt->getOption(DHO_LOG_SERVERS)) {
213 214
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "log-servers " << errmsg));
215 216

    } else if (pkt->getOption(DHO_COOKIE_SERVERS)) {
217 218
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "cookie-servers " << errmsg));
219 220 221

    }
    return (::testing::AssertionSuccess());
222 223
}

224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341
OptionPtr Dhcpv4SrvTest::generateClientId(size_t size /*= 4*/) {

    OptionBuffer clnt_id(size);
    for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
        clnt_id[i] = 100 + i;
    }

    client_id_ = ClientIdPtr(new ClientId(clnt_id));

    return (OptionPtr(new Option(Option::V4, DHO_DHCP_CLIENT_IDENTIFIER,
                                 clnt_id.begin(),
                                 clnt_id.begin() + size)));
}

HWAddrPtr Dhcpv4SrvTest::generateHWAddr(size_t size /*= 6*/) {
    const uint8_t hw_type = 123; // Just a fake number (typically 6=HTYPE_ETHER, see dhcp4.h)
    OptionBuffer mac(size);
    for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
        mac[i] = 50 + i;
    }
    return (HWAddrPtr(new HWAddr(mac, hw_type)));
}

void Dhcpv4SrvTest::checkAddressParams(const Pkt4Ptr& rsp, const SubnetPtr subnet,
                                       bool t1_mandatory /*= false*/,
                                       bool t2_mandatory /*= false*/) {

    // Technically inPool implies inRange, but let's be on the safe
    // side and check both.
    EXPECT_TRUE(subnet->inRange(rsp->getYiaddr()));
    EXPECT_TRUE(subnet->inPool(Lease::TYPE_V4, rsp->getYiaddr()));

    // Check lease time
    OptionPtr opt = rsp->getOption(DHO_DHCP_LEASE_TIME);
    if (!opt) {
        ADD_FAILURE() << "Lease time option missing in response";
    } else {
        EXPECT_EQ(opt->getUint32(), subnet->getValid());
    }

    // Check T1 timer
    opt = rsp->getOption(DHO_DHCP_RENEWAL_TIME);
    if (opt) {
        EXPECT_EQ(opt->getUint32(), subnet->getT1());
    } else {
        if (t1_mandatory) {
            ADD_FAILURE() << "Required T1 option missing";
        }
    }

    // Check T2 timer
    opt = rsp->getOption(DHO_DHCP_REBINDING_TIME);
    if (opt) {
        EXPECT_EQ(opt->getUint32(), subnet->getT2());
    } else {
        if (t2_mandatory) {
            ADD_FAILURE() << "Required T2 option missing";
        }
    }
}

void Dhcpv4SrvTest::checkResponse(const Pkt4Ptr& rsp, uint8_t expected_message_type,
                                  uint32_t expected_transid) {
    ASSERT_TRUE(rsp);
    EXPECT_EQ(expected_message_type, rsp->getType());
    EXPECT_EQ(expected_transid, rsp->getTransid());
}

Lease4Ptr Dhcpv4SrvTest::checkLease(const Pkt4Ptr& rsp,
                                    const OptionPtr& client_id,
                                    const HWAddrPtr&,
                                    const IOAddress& expected_addr) {

    ClientIdPtr id;
    if (client_id) {
        OptionBuffer data = client_id->getData();
        id.reset(new ClientId(data));
    }

    Lease4Ptr lease = LeaseMgrFactory::instance().getLease4(expected_addr);
    if (!lease) {
        cout << "Lease for " << expected_addr.toText()
             << " not found in the database backend.";
        return (Lease4Ptr());
    }

    EXPECT_EQ(rsp->getYiaddr().toText(), expected_addr.toText());

    EXPECT_EQ(expected_addr.toText(), lease->addr_.toText());
    if (client_id) {
        EXPECT_TRUE(*lease->client_id_ == *id);
    }
    EXPECT_EQ(subnet_->getID(), lease->subnet_id_);

    return (lease);
}

/// @brief Checks if server response (OFFER, ACK, NAK) includes proper server-id
/// @param rsp response packet to be validated
/// @param expected_srvid expected value of server-id
void Dhcpv4SrvTest::checkServerId(const Pkt4Ptr& rsp, const OptionPtr& expected_srvid) {
    // Check that server included its server-id
    OptionPtr opt = rsp->getOption(DHO_DHCP_SERVER_IDENTIFIER);
    ASSERT_TRUE(opt);
    EXPECT_EQ(opt->getType(), expected_srvid->getType() );
    EXPECT_EQ(opt->len(), expected_srvid->len() );
    EXPECT_TRUE(opt->getData() == expected_srvid->getData());
}

void Dhcpv4SrvTest::checkClientId(const Pkt4Ptr& rsp, const OptionPtr& expected_clientid) {
    // check that server included our own client-id
    OptionPtr opt = rsp->getOption(DHO_DHCP_CLIENT_IDENTIFIER);
    ASSERT_TRUE(opt);
    EXPECT_EQ(expected_clientid->getType(), opt->getType());
    EXPECT_EQ(expected_clientid->len(), opt->len());
    EXPECT_TRUE(expected_clientid->getData() == opt->getData());
}

342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350
::testing::AssertionResult
Dhcpv4SrvTest::createPacketFromBuffer(const Pkt4Ptr& src_pkt,
                                      Pkt4Ptr& dst_pkt) {
    // Create on-wire format of the packet. If pack() has been called
    // on this instance of the packet already, the next call to pack()
    // should remove all contents of the output buffer.
    try {
        src_pkt->pack();
    } catch (const Exception& ex) {
351 352 353
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "Failed to parse source packet: "
                                            << ex.what()));
354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362
    }
    // Get the output buffer from the source packet.
    const util::OutputBuffer& buf = src_pkt->getBuffer();
    // Create a copy of the packet using the output buffer from the source
    // packet.
    try {
        dst_pkt.reset(new Pkt4(static_cast<const uint8_t*>(buf.getData()),
                               buf.getLength()));
    } catch (const Exception& ex) {
363 364 365 366 367
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure(::testing::Message()
                                            << "Failed to create a"
                                            " destination packet from"
                                            " the buffer: "
                                            << ex.what()));
368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382
    }

    try {
        // Parse the new packet and return to the caller.
        dst_pkt->unpack();
    } catch (const Exception& ex) {
        return (::testing::AssertionFailure()
                << "Failed to parse a destination packet: "
                << ex.what());
    }

    return (::testing::AssertionSuccess());
}


383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426
void Dhcpv4SrvTest::testDiscoverRequest(const uint8_t msg_type) {
    // Create an instance of the tested class.
    boost::scoped_ptr<NakedDhcpv4Srv> srv(new NakedDhcpv4Srv(0));

    // Initialize the source HW address.
    vector<uint8_t> mac(6);
    for (int i = 0; i < 6; ++i) {
        mac[i] = i * 10;
    }
    // Initialized the destination HW address.
    vector<uint8_t> dst_mac(6);
    for (int i = 0; i < 6; ++i) {
        dst_mac[i] = i * 20;
    }
    // Create a DHCP message. It will be used to simulate the
    // incoming message.
    boost::shared_ptr<Pkt4> req(new Pkt4(msg_type, 1234));
    // Create a response message. It will hold a reponse packet.
    // Initially, set it to NULL.
    boost::shared_ptr<Pkt4> rsp;
    // Set the name of the interface on which packet is received.
    req->setIface("eth0");
    // Set the interface index. It is just a dummy value and will
    // not be interpreted.
    req->setIndex(17);
    // Set the target HW address. This value is normally used to
    // construct the data link layer header.
    req->setRemoteHWAddr(1, 6, dst_mac);
    // Set the HW address. This value is set on DHCP level (in chaddr).
    req->setHWAddr(1, 6, mac);
    // Set local HW address. It is used to construct the data link layer
    // header.
    req->setLocalHWAddr(1, 6, mac);
    // Set target IP address.
    req->setRemoteAddr(IOAddress("192.0.2.55"));
    // Set relay address.
    req->setGiaddr(IOAddress("192.0.2.10"));

    // We are going to test that certain options are returned
    // in the response message when requested using 'Parameter
    // Request List' option. Let's configure those options that
    // are returned when requested.
    configureRequestedOptions();

427 428 429 430 431
    // Create a copy of the original packet by parsing its wire format.
    // This simulates the real life scenario when we process the packet
    // which was parsed from its wire format.
    Pkt4Ptr received;
    ASSERT_TRUE(createPacketFromBuffer(req, received));
432 433
    if (msg_type == DHCPDISCOVER) {
        ASSERT_NO_THROW(
434
            rsp = srv->processDiscover(received);
435
        );
436 437 438 439 440 441

        // Should return OFFER
        ASSERT_TRUE(rsp);
        EXPECT_EQ(DHCPOFFER, rsp->getType());

    } else {
442
        ASSERT_NO_THROW(rsp = srv->processRequest(received));
443 444 445 446 447 448 449

        // Should return ACK
        ASSERT_TRUE(rsp);
        EXPECT_EQ(DHCPACK, rsp->getType());

    }

450
    messageCheck(received, rsp);
451

452 453
    // Basic options should be present when we got the lease.
    EXPECT_TRUE(basicOptionsPresent(rsp));
454 455
    // We did not request any options so these should not be present
    // in the RSP.
456
    EXPECT_TRUE(noRequestedOptions(rsp));
457 458 459 460 461

    // Repeat the test but request some options.
    // Add 'Parameter Request List' option.
    addPrlOption(req);

462 463 464
    ASSERT_TRUE(createPacketFromBuffer(req, received));
    ASSERT_TRUE(received->getOption(DHO_DHCP_PARAMETER_REQUEST_LIST));

465
    if (msg_type == DHCPDISCOVER) {
466
        ASSERT_NO_THROW(rsp = srv->processDiscover(received));
467 468 469 470 471 472

        // Should return non-NULL packet.
        ASSERT_TRUE(rsp);
        EXPECT_EQ(DHCPOFFER, rsp->getType());

    } else {
473
        ASSERT_NO_THROW(rsp = srv->processRequest(received));
474 475 476 477 478 479 480

        // Should return non-NULL packet.
        ASSERT_TRUE(rsp);
        EXPECT_EQ(DHCPACK, rsp->getType());
    }

    // Check that the requested options are returned.
481 482
    EXPECT_TRUE(basicOptionsPresent(rsp));
    EXPECT_TRUE(requestedOptionsPresent(rsp));
483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511

    // The following part of the test will test that the NAK is sent when
    // there is no address pool configured. In the same time, we expect
    // that the requested options are not included in NAK message, but that
    // they are only included when yiaddr is set to non-zero value.
    ASSERT_NO_THROW(subnet_->delPools(Lease::TYPE_V4));

    // There has been a lease allocated for the particular client. So,
    // even though we deleted the subnet, the client would get the
    // existing lease (not a NAK). Therefore, we have to change the chaddr
    // in the packet so as the existing lease is not returned.
    req->setHWAddr(1, 6, std::vector<uint8_t>(2, 6));
    ASSERT_TRUE(createPacketFromBuffer(req, received));
    ASSERT_TRUE(received->getOption(DHO_DHCP_PARAMETER_REQUEST_LIST));

    if (msg_type == DHCPDISCOVER) {
        ASSERT_NO_THROW(rsp = srv->processDiscover(received));
        // Should return non-NULL packet.
        ASSERT_TRUE(rsp);
    } else {
        ASSERT_NO_THROW(rsp = srv->processRequest(received));
        // Should return non-NULL packet.
        ASSERT_TRUE(rsp);
    }
    // We should get the NAK packet with yiaddr set to 0.
    EXPECT_EQ(DHCPNAK, rsp->getType());
    ASSERT_EQ("0.0.0.0", rsp->getYiaddr().toText());

    // Make sure that none of the requested options is returned in NAK.
512 513 514 515
    // Also options such as Routers or Subnet Mask should not be there,
    // because lease hasn't been acquired.
    EXPECT_TRUE(noRequestedOptions(rsp));
    EXPECT_TRUE(noBasicOptions(rsp));
516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550
}

/// @brief This function cleans up after the test.
void Dhcpv4SrvTest::TearDown() {

    CfgMgr::instance().deleteSubnets4();

    // Let's clean up if there is such a file.
    unlink(SRVID_FILE);

    // Close all open sockets.
    IfaceMgr::instance().closeSockets();

    // Some unit tests override the default packet filtering class, used
    // by the IfaceMgr. The dummy class, called PktFilterTest, reports the
    // capability to directly respond to the clients without IP address
    // assigned. This capability is not supported by the default packet
    // filtering class: PktFilterInet. Therefore setting the dummy class
    // allows to test scenarios, when server responds to the broadcast address
    // on client's request, despite having support for direct response.
    // The following call restores the use of original packet filtering class
    // after the test.
    try {
        IfaceMgr::instance().setPacketFilter(PktFilterPtr(new PktFilterInet()));

    } catch (const Exception& ex) {
        FAIL() << "Failed to restore the default (PktFilterInet) packet filtering"
               << " class after the test. Exception has been caught: "
               << ex.what();
    }
}

}; // end of isc::dhcp::test namespace
}; // end of isc::dhcp namespace
}; // end of isc namespace