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// Copyright (C) 2014-2017 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
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//
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// This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public
// License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this
// file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/.
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/**
 @page d2 DHCP-DDNS Component

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Kea is capable of sending dynamic DNS updates to DNS Servers, based on lease
changes made by Kea's DHCP servers. When DDNS updating is enabled,
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the DHCP servers generate requests to update DNS as they make lease changes.
These requests, implemented by isc::dhcp_ddns::NameChangeRequest (NCR), are sent
to a separate process, informally known as D2. D2 processes these requests by
carrying out DDNS conversations with the appropriate DNS servers such that they
update the DNS data.

The design documentation for D2 can be found here:
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<a href="http://oldkea.isc.org/wiki/DhcpDdnsDesign">D2 Design</a>.
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This document contains several UML diagrams, and a few conventions used within
these diagrams are worth noting:

- If a class is appearing on class diagram for the first time (within this
document) its background color will be yellow.  If it has been presented
already, its background color will be blue and/or its details may not be shown.

- Associations between classes in D2 are implemented in most cases via typedefs,
sometimes through a small chain of typedefs.  These typedefs are shown for
accuracy but are unimportant to a general discussion.

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@section d2ProcessDerivation D2's CPL Derivations
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D2's core application classes are DDNS-specific derivations of the CPL as show
in the diagram below:

@image html d2_app_classes.svg "D2's CPL Derivations"

- isc::d2::D2Controller - entry point for running D2, it processes command line
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options, starts and controls the application process, @c D2Process.
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- isc::d2::D2Process - creates and manages D2's primary resources and
implements the main event loop described in @ref d2EventLoop.
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- isc::d2::D2CfgMgr - creates, updates, and provides access to D2's application
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configuration which is embodied by @c D2CfgContext.
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- isc::d2::D2CfgContext - warehouses D2's application configuration.

@section d2ConfigMgt Configuration Management

D2's configuration management uses the same underlying mechanisms as Kea's DHCP
servers.  It's configuration information is organized into a hierarchical data
model which is mirrored in the implementation by a hierarchy of parser classes
and the runtime classes they instantiate.

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D2's data model is organized as follows:
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- A set of application level values such as the D2's IP address, port

- Two lists of "domains": one for Forward DNS and one for Reverse DNS. @n
  Each domain is described by a zone name and a list of DNS servers that can
  update that zone.

- A list of TSIG keys for conducting signed DDNS exchanges with DNS servers

The runtime classes that embody this model are shown in the following diagram:

@image html config_data_classes.svg "D2's Configuration Data Classes"

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- isc::d2::D2CfgContext - D2-specific derivation of @c DCfgContextBase. It
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houses the "global" configuration for an instance of D2.
- isc::d2::DdnsDomainListMgr - manages a list of domains.  Currently there is
one manager instance for the list of forward domains,  and one for the list of
reverse domains. In addition the domain list, it will may house other values
 specific to that list of domains (e.g. enable flag)
- isc::d2::DdnsDomain - represents a DNS domain (really a zone).  When requests
are received they are matched to a domain by comparing their FQDN to the domain's name.
- isc::d2::DnsServerInfo - describes a DNS server which supports DDNS for a
given domain.
- isc::d2::TSIGKeyInfo - describes a TSIG key used for authenticated DDNS for
a given domain.

The parsing classes, as one would expect, parallel the runtime classes quite
closely. The parsers are named for the runtime class they instantiate and are
either designed to parse a single occurrence of that class or list of that
class.  The parser classes are shown in the diagram below:

@image html config_parser_classes.svg "D2's Configuration Parsers"

- isc::d2::DdnsDomainListMgrParser - parser for a domain list manager, it
creates a domain list parser
- isc::d2::DdnsDomainListParser - parser for a list of domains, it creates a
domain parser for domain described in a list domains
- isc::d2::DdnsDomainParser - Parser for a domain, it creates a DNS server list
parser
- isc::d2::DnsServerInfoListParser -  parser for a list of DNS servers, it
creates a DNS server parser for server described in a list of servers
- isc::d2::DnsServerInfoParser - parser for DNS server
- isc::d2::TSIGKeyInfoListParser - parser for a list of TSIG keys, it creates a
parser for key described in a list of keys
- isc::d2::TSIGKeyInfoParser

The underlying common libraries for configuration parsing support configuration
input in JSON format, that complies with a fixed set of generic constructs that
may be described by a spec file (also JSON).  This mechanism is subject to
change, but in the meantime, the spec file describe D2's configuration may be
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found here: @c src/bin/d2/dhcp-ddns.spec
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@section d2NCRReceipt Request Reception and Queuing
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D2 is designed to receive requests from Kea's DHCP servers, asynchronously and
store them in queue to be processed.  The classes responsible for this are
shown in the diagram below:

@image html request_mgt_classes.svg  "Request Management Classes"

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- isc::d2::D2QueueMgr - owned by @c D2Process, it listens for @c NameChangeRequests
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and queues them for processing. It also provides services for adding,
finding, and removing queue entries.  It owns the interface used to receive
requests and thus shields the remainder of D2 from any specific knowledge or
interaction with this interface.
- isc::d2::RequestQueue - storage container for the received requests.
- isc::dhcp_ddns::NameChangeListener - Abstract asynchronous interface for
receiving requests which uses ASIO to process IO and invoke a callback upon
request receipt
- isc::dhcp_ddns::NameChangeUDPListener - Derivation of NameChangeListener
which supports receiving request via UDP socket
- isc::dhcp_ddns::NameChangeRequest - embodies a request to update DNS entries
based upon a DHCP lease change

D2QueueMgr is state-driven, albeit with a very simple state model. The states
are defined by isc::d2::D2QueueMgr::State, and described in detail in in
@ref d2_queue_mgr.h.

@section d2DDNSUpdateExecution Update Execution

The DDNS protocol can lead to a multiple step conversation between the updater
and the DNS server to update entries for a single client.  In addition,
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@c NameChangeRequests can request changes be made for both forward and reverse
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DNS.  In order to carry out the appropriate conversation, D2 wraps each request
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in a stateful transaction.
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Working such transactions serially can be inefficient, especially if those
requests involve different DNS servers. Therefore, D2 has been designed to
work on more than one transaction at a time by creating and managing a list of
transactions.

The classes which are responsible for carrying out this work are shown in the
following diagram:

@image html update_exec_classes.svg "Update Execution Classes"

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- isc::d2::D2UpdateMgr owned by @c D2Process, orchestrates the fulfillment of
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each request by managing the execution of its transaction.  Its high level
method @ref isc::d2::D2UpdateMgr::sweep() is meant to be called whenever IO
events occur.  The following steps are performed each time the method is called:
    - Any transaction which has been completed, is logged and culled from the
    transaction list.
    - Start a new transaction for the next queued request (if any)

- isc::d2::NameChangeTransaction -  abstract state-driven class which carries
out the steps necessary to fulfill a single request.  Fulfilling a request is
achieved as IO events in response it DDNS requests drive the transaction
through its state model.  The type of transaction is based on the nature of
the request, this is discussed further on @ref d2TransDetail

- isc::d2::DNSClient - an asynchronous worker which atomically performs a
single DDNS packet exchange with a given server, providing the response via a
callback mechanism.  Each time a transaction's state model calls for a packet
exchange with a DNS server, it uses an instance of this class to do it.

- isc::d2::D2UpdateMessage - container for sending and receiving DDNS packets

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@section d2EventLoop Main Event Loop
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Now that all of the primary components have been introduced it is worth while
discussing D2's main event loop.  As mentioned earlier D2 is constructed around
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the CPL which is designed to be driven by asynchronous IO processed by a
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common IO service thread (isc::asiolink::io_service).  Any IO that needs to be
performed by the application thread uses this service to do so. This organizes
the IO event processing into a single event loop centered around the service.
(This does not preclude spinning off worker threads to conduct other tasks,
with their own io_service instances).  D2's main event loop, implemented in @ref isc::d2::D2Process::run() may be paraphrased as follows:

@code
    As long as we should not shutdown repeat the following steps:
        1. Check on the state of the request queue. Take any actions necessary
        regarding it.  For example, it may be in the process of shutting down
        its listener prior to applying a configuration change.

        2. Give update manager a "time slice" to cull finished transactions and
        start new ones.

        3. Block until one or more of the following IO events occur:
            a. NCR message has been received
            b. Transaction IO has completed
            c. Interval timer expired
            d. A process command has been received
            e. Something has stopped the IO service (most likely a fatal error)
@endcode

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@section d2TransDetail Transactions
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There are two types of @c NameChangeRequests: an "Add" that is issued when DNS
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entries need to be added for new or updated lease, and a "Remove" that is
issued when DNS entries need to be removed for obsolete or expired lease. The
DDNS protocol dictates the steps that should be followed in both cases.

D2's design addresses this by calling for two types of transactions: one for
adding entries and one for removing them, each with their own state model.
The transaction classes are shown in the following diagram:

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@image html trans_classes.svg "NameChangeTransaction Derivations"
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- isc::d2::NameAddTransaction - carries out a @c NameChangeRequest to add entries
- isc::d2::NameRemoveTransaction - carries out a @c NameChangeRequest to remove entries
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- isc::util::StateModel - abstract state model described in @ref d2StateModel
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The state models for these two transactions implement DDNS with conflict
resolution as described in <a href="https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4703">RFC 4703</a>.

The state model for isc::d2::NameAddTransaction is diagrammed below:

@image html add_state_model.svg "State Model for NameAddTransaction"

The state model for isc::d2::NameRemoveTransaction is depicted next:

@image html remove_state_model.svg "State Model for NameRemoveTransaction"

@subsection d2StateModel State Model Implementation

D2 implements a abstract state-machine through a light weight set of classes.
At construction, the model's dictionary of events and states is initialized.
This allows, the deriving class the ability to bind a method of its choosing
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to each state as that state's handler.  Each handler contains the knowledge
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of how to respond to the "posted" event and including posting other events and
transitioning to other states.

Executing the model consists of beginning at the current state with the posted
event and continuing until the model needs to wait for an IO-based event or
it has reached the end of the state model.  These classes will likely move to
a common library.

@image html state_model_classes.svg "State Model Classes"

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- isc::util::StateModel - provides the mechanics for executing a state model
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described by a dictionary events and states.  It provides methods to:
    - initialize the model - constructs the dictionary of events and states
    - start the model - sets the model to its initial state, posts a "start"
      event and starts the model "running"
      "start event"
    - run the model - process the posted event (if one) until the model reaches
      a wait state or reaches the end state.
    - transition from one state to another
- isc::d2::Event - Defines an event used to stimulate the model
- isc::d2::State - Defines a state with the model, each state has a handler
method that is executed upon transition "into" that state from another
- isc::d2::LabeledValue - An abstract that associates a integer value with a
text label
- isc::d2::LabeledValueSet - A collection of LabeledValues for which the integer
values must be unique

@subsection d2TransExecExample Transaction Execution Example

The following sequence chart depicts the typically sequence of events that occur
when D2UpdateMgr creates and starts executing a transaction:

@image html nc_trans_sequence.svg "Transaction Execution Sequence"

*/