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<html><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"><title>BIND 10 Guide</title><link rel="stylesheet" href="./bind10-guide.css" type="text/css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL Stylesheets V1.75.2"><meta name="description" content="BIND 10 is a Domain Name System (DNS) suite managed by Internet Systems Consortium (ISC). It includes DNS libraries and modular components for controlling authoritative and recursive DNS servers. This is the reference guide for BIND 10 version 20110120. The most up-to-date version of this document, along with other documents for BIND 10, can be found at ."></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="book" title="BIND 10 Guide"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h1 class="title"><a name="id1168230298903"></a>BIND 10 Guide</h1></div><div><h2 class="subtitle">Administrator Reference for BIND 10</h2></div><div><p class="releaseinfo">This is the reference guide for BIND 10 version
        20110120.</p></div><div><p class="copyright">Copyright © 2010 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc.</p></div><div><div class="abstract" title="Abstract"><p class="title"><b>Abstract</b></p><p>BIND 10 is a Domain Name System (DNS) suite managed by
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	Internet Systems Consortium (ISC). It includes DNS libraries
	and modular components for controlling authoritative and
	recursive DNS servers.
      </p><p>
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        This is the reference guide for BIND 10 version 20110120.
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	The most up-to-date version of this document, along with
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	other documents for BIND 10, can be found at <a class="ulink" href="http://bind10.isc.org/docs" target="_top">http://bind10.isc.org/docs</a>.  </p></div></div></div><hr></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#intro">1. Introduction</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230299042">Supported Platforms</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230299068">Required Software</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#starting_stopping">Starting and Stopping the Server</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#managing_once_running">Managing BIND 10</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#installation">2. Installation</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230284843">Building Requirements</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#quickstart">Quick start</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#install">Installation from source</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285029">Download Tar File</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285048">Retrieve from Git</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285109">Configure before the build</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285206">Build</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285222">Install</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285245">Install Hierarchy</a></span></dt></dl></dd></dl></dd><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#bind10">3. Starting BIND10 with <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span></a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="#start">Starting BIND 10</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#msgq">4. Command channel</a></span></dt><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#cfgmgr">5. Configuration manager</a></span></dt><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#cmdctl">6. Remote control daemon</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="#cmdctl.spec">Configuration specification for b10-cmdctl</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#bindctl">7. Control and configure user interface</a></span></dt><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#authserver">8. Authoritative Server</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285821">Server Configurations</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285886">Data Source Backends</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285917">Loading Master Zones Files</a></span></dt></dl></dd><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#xfrin">9. Incoming Zone Transfers</a></span></dt><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#xfrout">10. Outbound Zone Transfers</a></span></dt><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#zonemgr">11. Secondary Manager</a></span></dt><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#resolverserver">12. Recursive Name Server</a></span></dt><dt><span class="chapter"><a href="#statistics">13. Statistics</a></span></dt></dl></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 1. Introduction"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="intro"></a>Chapter 1. Introduction</h2></div></div></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230299042">Supported Platforms</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230299068">Required Software</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#starting_stopping">Starting and Stopping the Server</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#managing_once_running">Managing BIND 10</a></span></dt></dl></div><p>
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      BIND is the popular implementation of a DNS server, developer
      interfaces, and DNS tools.
      BIND 10 is a rewrite of BIND 9.  BIND 10 is written in C++ and Python
      and provides a modular environment for serving and maintaining DNS.
    </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
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        This guide covers the experimental prototype of
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        BIND 10 version 20110120.
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      </p></div><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
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        BIND 10 provides a EDNS0- and DNSSEC-capable
        authoritative DNS server and a forwarding DNS server.
      </p></div><div class="section" title="Supported Platforms"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id1168230299042"></a>Supported Platforms</h2></div></div></div><p>
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  BIND 10 builds have been tested on Debian GNU/Linux 5,
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  Ubuntu 9.10, NetBSD 5, Solaris 10, FreeBSD 7 and 8, and CentOS
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  Linux 5.3.

  It has been tested on Sparc, i386, and amd64 hardware
  platforms.

        It is planned for BIND 10 to build, install and run on
        Windows and standard Unix-type platforms.
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      </p></div><div class="section" title="Required Software"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id1168230299068"></a>Required Software</h2></div></div></div><p>
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        BIND 10 requires Python 3.1.  Later versions may work, but Python
        3.1 is the minimum version which will work.
      </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
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	For this development prototype release, the only supported
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	data source backend is SQLite3. The authoritative server
	requires SQLite 3.3.9 or newer.
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	The <span class="command"><strong>b10-xfrin</strong></span>, <span class="command"><strong>b10-xfrout</strong></span>,
	and <span class="command"><strong>b10-zonemgr</strong></span> modules require the
	libpython3 library and the Python _sqlite3.so module.
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      </p></div><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
          Some operating systems do not provide these dependencies
          in their default installation nor standard packages
          collections.
          You may need to install them separately.
        </p></div></div><div class="section" title="Starting and Stopping the Server"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="starting_stopping"></a>Starting and Stopping the Server</h2></div></div></div><p>
        BIND 10 is modular.  Part of this modularity is
        accomplished using multiple cooperating processes which, together,
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	provide the server functionality.  This is a change from
	the previous generation of BIND software, which used a
	single process.
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      </p><p>
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	At first, running many different processes may seem confusing.
	However, these processes are started, stopped, and maintained
	by a single command, <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span>.
	This command starts a master process which will start other
	processes as needed.
	The processes started by the <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span>
	command have names starting with "b10-", including:
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      </p><p>

        </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
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              <span class="command"><strong>b10-msgq</strong></span> &#8212;
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              Message bus daemon.
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              This process coordinates communication between all of the other
              BIND 10 processes.
            </li><li class="listitem">
              <span class="command"><strong>b10-auth</strong></span> &#8212;
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              Authoritative DNS server.
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              This process serves DNS requests.
            </li><li class="listitem">
              <span class="command"><strong>b10-cfgmgr</strong></span> &#8212;
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              Configuration manager.
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              This process maintains all of the configuration for BIND 10.
            </li><li class="listitem">
              <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span> &#8212;
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              Command and control service.
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              This process allows external control of the BIND 10 system.
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            </li><li class="listitem">
              <span class="command"><strong>b10-resolver</strong></span> &#8212;
              Recursive name server.
              This process handles incoming queries.

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            </li><li class="listitem">
              <span class="command"><strong>b10-stats</strong></span> &#8212;
              Statistics collection daemon.
              This process collects and reports statistics data.
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            </li><li class="listitem">
              <span class="command"><strong>b10-xfrin</strong></span> &#8212;
              Incoming zone transfer service.
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              This process is used to transfer a new copy
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              of a zone into BIND 10, when acting as a secondary server.
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            </li><li class="listitem">
              <span class="command"><strong>b10-xfrout</strong></span> &#8212;
              Outgoing zone transfer service.
	      This process is used to handle transfer requests to
	      send a local zone to a remote secondary server,
	      when acting as a master server.
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            </li><li class="listitem">
              <span class="command"><strong>b10-zonemgr</strong></span> &#8212;
              Secondary manager.
	      This process keeps track of timers and other
              necessary information for BIND 10 to act as a slave server.
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            </li></ul></div><p>
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      </p><p>
	These are ran automatically by <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span>
	and do not need to be run manually.
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      </p></div><div class="section" title="Managing BIND 10"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="managing_once_running"></a>Managing BIND 10</h2></div></div></div><p>
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	Once BIND 10 is running, a few commands are used to interact
	directly with the system:
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        </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
              <span class="command"><strong>bindctl</strong></span> &#8212;
              interactive administration interface.
              This is a command-line tool which allows an administrator
              to control BIND 10.
            </li><li class="listitem">
              <span class="command"><strong>b10-loadzone</strong></span> &#8212;
              zone file loader.
              This tool will load standard masterfile-format zone files into
              BIND 10.
            </li><li class="listitem">
              <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl-usermgr</strong></span> &#8212;
              user access control.
              This tool allows an administrator to authorize additional users
              to manage BIND 10.
            </li></ul></div><p>
      </p></div><p>
      The tools and modules are covered in full detail in this guide.

      In addition, manual pages are also provided in the default installation.
    </p><p>
      BIND 10 also provides libraries and programmer interfaces
      for C++ and Python for the message bus, configuration backend,
      and, of course, DNS. These include detailed developer
      documentation and code examples.

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    </p></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 2. Installation"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="installation"></a>Chapter 2. Installation</h2></div></div></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230284843">Building Requirements</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#quickstart">Quick start</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#install">Installation from source</a></span></dt><dd><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285029">Download Tar File</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285048">Retrieve from Git</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285109">Configure before the build</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285206">Build</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285222">Install</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285245">Install Hierarchy</a></span></dt></dl></dd></dl></div><div class="section" title="Building Requirements"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id1168230284843"></a>Building Requirements</h2></div></div></div><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
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            Some operating systems have split their distribution packages into
            a run-time and a development package.  You will need to install
            the development package versions, which include header files and
            libraries, to build BIND 10 from source code.
          </p></div><p>
          Building from source code requires the Boost
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          build-time headers. At least Boost version 1.35 is required.
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        </p><p>
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	  The Python Library and Python _sqlite3 module are required to
          enable the Xfrout and Xfrin support.
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        </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
          The Python related libraries and modules need to be built
          for Python 3.1.
        </p></div><p>
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          Building BIND 10 also requires a C++ compiler and
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          standard development headers, make, and pkg-config.
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          BIND 10 builds have been tested with GCC g++ 3.4.3, 4.1.2,
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          4.1.3, 4.2.1, 4.3.2, and 4.4.1.
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        </p></div><div class="section" title="Quick start"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="quickstart"></a>Quick start</h2></div></div></div><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
          This quickly covers the standard steps for installing
          and deploying BIND 10 as an authoritative name server using
          its defaults. For troubleshooting, full customizations and further
          details, see the respective chapters in the BIND 10 guide.
        </p></div><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
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          The development prototype of the b10-auth server listens on
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          0.0.0.0 (all interfaces) port 5300. (This is not the standard
          domain service port.)
        </p></div><p>
        To quickly get started with BIND 10, follow these steps.
      </p><div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1"><li class="listitem">
            Install required build dependencies.
          </li><li class="listitem">
            Download the BIND 10 source tar file from
            <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.isc.org/isc/bind10/" target="_top">ftp://ftp.isc.org/isc/bind10/</a>.
          </li><li class="listitem"><p>Extract the tar file:
          </p><pre class="screen">$ <strong class="userinput"><code>gzcat bind10-<em class="replaceable"><code>VERSION</code></em>.tar.gz | tar -xvf -</code></strong></pre><p>
          </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Go into the source and run configure:
            </p><pre class="screen">$ <strong class="userinput"><code>cd bind10-<em class="replaceable"><code>VERSION</code></em></code></strong>
  $ <strong class="userinput"><code>./configure</code></strong></pre><p>
          </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Build it:
            </p><pre class="screen">$ <strong class="userinput"><code>make</code></strong></pre><p>
          </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Install it (to default /usr/local):
            </p><pre class="screen">$ <strong class="userinput"><code>make install</code></strong></pre><p>
          </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Start the server:
            </p><pre class="screen">$ <strong class="userinput"><code>/usr/local/sbin/bind10</code></strong></pre><p>
          </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Test it; for example:
            </p><pre class="screen">$ <strong class="userinput"><code>dig @127.0.0.1 -p 5300 -c CH -t TXT authors.bind</code></strong></pre><p>
         </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>Load desired zone file(s), for example:
            </p><pre class="screen">$ <strong class="userinput"><code>b10-loadzone <em class="replaceable"><code>your.zone.example.org</code></em></code></strong></pre><p>
          </p></li><li class="listitem">
            Test the new zone.
          </li></ol></div></div><div class="section" title="Installation from source"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="install"></a>Installation from source</h2></div></div></div><p>
        BIND 10 is open source software written in C++ and Python.
        It is freely available in source code form from ISC via
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        the Git code revision control system or as a downloadable
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        tar file. It may also be available in pre-compiled ready-to-use
        packages from operating system vendors.
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      </p><div class="section" title="Download Tar File"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id1168230285029"></a>Download Tar File</h3></div></div></div><p>
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          Downloading a release tar file is the recommended method to
          obtain the source code.
        </p><p>
          The BIND 10 releases are available as tar file downloads from
          <a class="ulink" href="ftp://ftp.isc.org/isc/bind10/" target="_top">ftp://ftp.isc.org/isc/bind10/</a>.
          Periodic development snapshots may also be available.
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        </p></div><div class="section" title="Retrieve from Git"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id1168230285048"></a>Retrieve from Git</h3></div></div></div><p>
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          Downloading this "bleeding edge" code is recommended only for
          developers or advanced users.  Using development code in a production
          environment is not recommended.
        </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
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            When using source code retrieved via Git additional
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            software will be required:  automake (v1.11 or newer),
            libtoolize, and autoconf (2.59 or newer).
            These may need to be installed.
          </p></div><p>
          The latest development code, including temporary experiments
          and un-reviewed code, is available via the BIND 10 code revision
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          control system. This is powered by Git and all the BIND 10
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          development is public.
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          The leading development is done in the <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">master</span>&#8221;</span>.
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        </p><p>
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          The code can be checked out from
          <code class="filename">git://bind10.isc.org/bind10</code>;
          for example:
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        </p><pre class="screen">$ <strong class="userinput"><code>git clone git://bind10.isc.org/bind10</code></strong></pre><p>
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        </p><p>
          When checking out the code from
          the code version control system, it doesn't include the
          generated configure script, Makefile.in files, nor the
          related configure files.
          They can be created by running <span class="command"><strong>autoreconf</strong></span>
          with the <code class="option">--install</code> switch.
          This will run <span class="command"><strong>autoconf</strong></span>,
          <span class="command"><strong>aclocal</strong></span>,
          <span class="command"><strong>libtoolize</strong></span>,
          <span class="command"><strong>autoheader</strong></span>,
          <span class="command"><strong>automake</strong></span>,
          and related commands.
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        </p></div><div class="section" title="Configure before the build"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id1168230285109"></a>Configure before the build</h3></div></div></div><p>
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          BIND 10 uses the GNU Build System to discover build environment
          details.
          To generate the makefiles using the defaults, simply run:
          </p><pre class="screen">$ <strong class="userinput"><code>./configure</code></strong></pre><p>
        </p><p>
          Run <span class="command"><strong>./configure</strong></span> with the <code class="option">--help</code>
          switch to view the different options. The commonly-used options are:

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          </p><div class="variablelist"><dl><dt><span class="term">--prefix</span></dt><dd>Define the the installation location (the
                default is <code class="filename">/usr/local/</code>).
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              </dd><dt><span class="term">--with-boost-include</span></dt><dd>Define the path to find the Boost headers.
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              </dd><dt><span class="term">--with-pythonpath</span></dt><dd>Define the path to Python 3.1 if it is not in the
                standard execution path.
              </dd><dt><span class="term">--with-gtest</span></dt><dd>Enable building the C++ Unit Tests using the
                Google Tests framework. Optionally this can define the
                path to the gtest header files and library.
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              </dd></dl></div><p>

        </p><p>
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          For example, the following configures it to
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    find the Boost headers, find the
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    Python interpreter, and sets the installation location:

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          </p><pre class="screen">$ <strong class="userinput"><code>./configure \
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      --with-boost-include=/usr/pkg/include \
      --with-pythonpath=/usr/pkg/bin/python3.1 \
      --prefix=/opt/bind10</code></strong></pre><p>
        </p><p>
          If the configure fails, it may be due to missing or old
          dependencies.
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        </p></div><div class="section" title="Build"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id1168230285206"></a>Build</h3></div></div></div><p>
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    After the configure step is complete, to build the executables
    from the C++ code and prepare the Python scripts, run:

          </p><pre class="screen">$ <strong class="userinput"><code>make</code></strong></pre><p>
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        </p></div><div class="section" title="Install"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id1168230285222"></a>Install</h3></div></div></div><p>
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          To install the BIND 10 executables, support files,
          and documentation, run:
          </p><pre class="screen">$ <strong class="userinput"><code>make install</code></strong></pre><p>
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        </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>The install step may require superuser privileges.</p></div></div><div class="section" title="Install Hierarchy"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a name="id1168230285245"></a>Install Hierarchy</h3></div></div></div><p>
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          The following is the layout of the complete BIND 10 installation:
          </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul class="itemizedlist" type="disc"><li class="listitem">
                <code class="filename">bin/</code> &#8212;
                general tools and diagnostic clients.
              </li><li class="listitem">
              <code class="filename">etc/bind10-devel/</code> &#8212;
              configuration files.
            </li><li class="listitem">
                <code class="filename">lib/</code> &#8212;
                libraries and python modules.
              </li><li class="listitem">
                <code class="filename">libexec/bind10-devel/</code> &#8212;
                executables that a user wouldn't normally run directly and
                are not run independently.
                These are the BIND 10 modules which are daemons started by
                the <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span> tool.
              </li><li class="listitem">
                <code class="filename">sbin/</code> &#8212;
                commands used by the system administrator.
              </li><li class="listitem">
                <code class="filename">share/bind10-devel/</code> &#8212;
                configuration specifications.
              </li><li class="listitem">
                <code class="filename">share/man/</code> &#8212;
                manual pages (online documentation).
              </li><li class="listitem">
                <code class="filename">var/bind10-devel/</code> &#8212;
                data source and configuration databases.
              </li></ul></div><p>
        </p></div></div></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 3. Starting BIND10 with bind10"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="bind10"></a>Chapter 3. Starting BIND10 with <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span></h2></div></div></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="#start">Starting BIND 10</a></span></dt></dl></div><p>
      BIND 10 provides the <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span> command which 
      starts up the required processes.
      <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span>
      will also restart processes that exit unexpectedly.
      This is the only command needed to start the BIND 10 system.
    </p><p>
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      After starting the <span class="command"><strong>b10-msgq</strong></span> communications channel,
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      <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span> connects to it, 
      runs the configuration manager, and reads its own configuration.
      Then it starts the other modules.
    </p><p>
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      The <span class="command"><strong>b10-msgq</strong></span> and <span class="command"><strong>b10-cfgmgr</strong></span>
      services make up the core. The <span class="command"><strong>b10-msgq</strong></span> daemon
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      provides the communication channel between every part of the system.
      The <span class="command"><strong>b10-cfgmgr</strong></span> daemon is always needed by every
      module, if only to send information about themselves somewhere,
      but more importantly to ask about their own settings, and
      about other modules.
      The <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span> master process will also start up
      <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span> for admins to communicate with the
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      system, <span class="command"><strong>b10-auth</strong></span> for authoritative DNS service or
      <span class="command"><strong>b10-resolver</strong></span> for recursive name service,
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      <span class="command"><strong>b10-stats</strong></span> for statistics collection,
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      <span class="command"><strong>b10-xfrin</strong></span> for inbound DNS zone transfers,
      <span class="command"><strong>b10-xfrout</strong></span> for outbound DNS zone transfers,
      and <span class="command"><strong>b10-zonemgr</strong></span> for secondary service.
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    </p><div class="section" title="Starting BIND 10"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="start"></a>Starting BIND 10</h2></div></div></div><p>
        To start the BIND 10 service, simply run <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span>.
        Run it with the <code class="option">--verbose</code> switch to
        get additional debugging or diagnostic output.
      </p></div></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 4. Command channel"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="msgq"></a>Chapter 4. Command channel</h2></div></div></div><p>
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        The BIND 10 components use the <span class="command"><strong>b10-msgq</strong></span>
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        message routing daemon to communicate with other BIND 10 components.
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        The <span class="command"><strong>b10-msgq</strong></span> implements what is called the
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        <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Command Channel</span>&#8221;</span>.
        Processes intercommunicate by sending messages on the command
        channel.
        Example messages include shutdown, get configurations, and set
        configurations.
        This Command Channel is not used for DNS message passing.
        It is used only to control and monitor the BIND 10 system.
      </p><p>
        Administrators do not communicate directly with the
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        <span class="command"><strong>b10-msgq</strong></span> daemon.
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        By default, BIND 10 uses port 9912 for the
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        <span class="command"><strong>b10-msgq</strong></span> service.
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        It listens on 127.0.0.1.
      </p></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 5. Configuration manager"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="cfgmgr"></a>Chapter 5. Configuration manager</h2></div></div></div><p>
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         The configuration manager, <span class="command"><strong>b10-cfgmgr</strong></span>,
         handles all BIND 10 system configuration.  It provides
         persistent storage for configuration, and notifies running
         modules of configuration changes.
      </p><p>
        The <span class="command"><strong>b10-auth</strong></span> and <span class="command"><strong>b10-xfrin</strong></span>
        daemons and other components receive their configurations
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        from the configuration manager over the <span class="command"><strong>b10-msgq</strong></span>
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        command channel.
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      </p><p>The administrator doesn't connect to it directly, but
        uses a user interface to communicate with the configuration
        manager via <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span>'s REST-ful interface.
        <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span> is covered in <a class="xref" href="#cmdctl" title="Chapter 6. Remote control daemon">Chapter 6, <i>Remote control daemon</i></a>.
      </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
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          The development prototype release only provides the
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          <span class="command"><strong>bindctl</strong></span> as a user interface to
          <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span>.
          Upcoming releases will provide another interactive command-line
          interface and a web-based interface.
        </p></div><p>
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        The <span class="command"><strong>b10-cfgmgr</strong></span> daemon can send all
        specifications and all current settings to the
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        <span class="command"><strong>bindctl</strong></span> client (via
        <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span>).
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      </p><p>
        <span class="command"><strong>b10-cfgmgr</strong></span> relays configurations received
        from <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span> to the appropriate modules.
      </p><p>
        The stored configuration file is at
        <code class="filename">/usr/local/var/bind10-devel/b10-config.db</code>.
        (The full path is what was defined at build configure time for
        <code class="option">--localstatedir</code>.
        The default is <code class="filename">/usr/local/var/</code>.)
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        The format is loosely based on JSON and is directly parseable
        python, but this may change in a future version.
        This configuration data file is not manually edited by the
        administrator.
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      </p><p>
      The configuration manager does not have any command line arguments.
      Normally it is not started manually, but is automatically
      started using the <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span> master process
      (as covered in <a class="xref" href="#bind10" title="Chapter 3. Starting BIND10 with bind10">Chapter 3, <i>Starting BIND10 with <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span></i></a>).
    </p></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 6. Remote control daemon"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="cmdctl"></a>Chapter 6. Remote control daemon</h2></div></div></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="#cmdctl.spec">Configuration specification for b10-cmdctl</a></span></dt></dl></div><p>
      <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span> is the gateway between
      administrators and the BIND 10 system.
      It is a HTTPS server that uses standard HTTP Digest
      Authentication for username and password validation.
      It provides a REST-ful interface for accessing and controlling
      BIND 10.
    </p><p>
      When <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span> starts, it firsts
      asks <span class="command"><strong>b10-cfgmgr</strong></span> about what modules are
      running and what their configuration is (over the
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      <span class="command"><strong>b10-msgq</strong></span> channel). Then it will start listening
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      on HTTPS for clients &#8212; the user interface &#8212; such
      as <span class="command"><strong>bindctl</strong></span>.
    </p><p>
      <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span> directly sends commands
      (received from the user interface) to the specified component.
      Configuration changes are actually commands to
      <span class="command"><strong>b10-cfgmgr</strong></span> so are sent there.
    </p><p>The HTTPS server requires a private key,
      such as a RSA PRIVATE KEY.
      The default location is at
      <code class="filename">/usr/local/etc/bind10-devel/cmdctl-keyfile.pem</code>.
      (A sample key is at
      <code class="filename">/usr/local/share/bind10-devel/cmdctl-keyfile.pem</code>.)
      It also uses a certificate located at
      <code class="filename">/usr/local/etc/bind10-devel/cmdctl-certfile.pem</code>.
      (A sample certificate is at
      <code class="filename">/usr/local/share/bind10-devel/cmdctl-certfile.pem</code>.)
      This may be a self-signed certificate or purchased from a
      certification authority.
    </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
      The HTTPS server doesn't support a certificate request from a
      client (at this time).

      The <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span> daemon does not provide a
      public service. If any client wants to control BIND 10, then
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      a certificate needs to be first received from the BIND 10
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      administrator.
      The BIND 10 installation provides a sample PEM bundle that matches
      the sample key and certificate.
    </p></div><p>
      The <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span> daemon also requires
      the user account file located at
      <code class="filename">/usr/local/etc/bind10-devel/cmdctl-accounts.csv</code>.
      This comma-delimited file lists the accounts with a user name,
      hashed password, and salt.
      (A sample file is at
      <code class="filename">/usr/local/share/bind10-devel/cmdctl-accounts.csv</code>.
      It contains the user named <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">root</span>&#8221;</span> with the password
      <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">bind10</span>&#8221;</span>.)
    </p><p>
      The administrator may create a user account with the
      <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl-usermgr</strong></span> tool.
    </p><p>
      By default the HTTPS server listens on the localhost port 8080.
      The port can be set by using the <code class="option">--port</code> command line option.
      The address to listen on can be set using the <code class="option">--address</code> command
      line argument.
      Each HTTPS connection is stateless and timesout in 1200 seconds
      by default.  This can be
      redefined by using the <code class="option">--idle-timeout</code> command line argument.
    </p><div class="section" title="Configuration specification for b10-cmdctl"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="cmdctl.spec"></a>Configuration specification for b10-cmdctl</h2></div></div></div><p>
        The configuration items for <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span> are:
key_file
cert_file
accounts_file
      </p><p>
        The control commands are:
print_settings
shutdown
      </p></div></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 7. Control and configure user interface"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="bindctl"></a>Chapter 7. Control and configure user interface</h2></div></div></div><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
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      For this development prototype release, <span class="command"><strong>bindctl</strong></span>
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      is the only user interface. It is expected that upcoming
      releases will provide another interactive command-line
      interface and a web-based interface for controlling and
      configuring BIND 10.
    </p></div><p>
      The <span class="command"><strong>bindctl</strong></span> tool provides an interactive
      prompt for configuring, controlling, and querying the BIND 10
      components.
      It communicates directly with a REST-ful interface over HTTPS
      provided by <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span>. It doesn't
      communicate to any other components directly.
    </p><p>
      Configuration changes are actually commands to
      <span class="command"><strong>b10-cfgmgr</strong></span>. So when <span class="command"><strong>bindctl</strong></span>
      sends a configuration, it is sent to <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span>
      (over a HTTPS connection); then <span class="command"><strong>b10-cmdctl</strong></span>
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      sends the command (over a <span class="command"><strong>b10-msgq</strong></span> command
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      channel) to <span class="command"><strong>b10-cfgmgr</strong></span> which then stores
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      the details and relays (over a <span class="command"><strong>b10-msgq</strong></span> command
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      channel) the configuration on to the specified module.
    </p><p>
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    </p></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 8. Authoritative Server"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="authserver"></a>Chapter 8. Authoritative Server</h2></div></div></div><div class="toc"><p><b>Table of Contents</b></p><dl><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285821">Server Configurations</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285886">Data Source Backends</a></span></dt><dt><span class="section"><a href="#id1168230285917">Loading Master Zones Files</a></span></dt></dl></div><p>
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      The <span class="command"><strong>b10-auth</strong></span> is the authoritative DNS server.
      It supports EDNS0 and DNSSEC. It supports IPv6.
      Normally it is started by the <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span> master
      process.
    </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
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      This development prototype release listens on all interfaces
      and the non-standard port 5300.
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    </p></div><div class="section" title="Server Configurations"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id1168230285821"></a>Server Configurations</h2></div></div></div><p>
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        <span class="command"><strong>b10-auth</strong></span> is configured via the
        <span class="command"><strong>b10-cfgmgr</strong></span> configuration manager.
        The module name is <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">Auth</span>&#8221;</span>.
        The configuration data item is:

        </p><div class="variablelist"><dl><dt><span class="term">database_file</span></dt><dd>This is an optional string to define the path to find
                 the SQLite3 database file.

Note: Later the DNS server will use various data source backends.
This may be a temporary setting until then.
              </dd></dl></div><p>

      </p><p>

        The configuration command is:

        </p><div class="variablelist"><dl><dt><span class="term">shutdown</span></dt><dd>Stop the authoritative DNS server.
              </dd></dl></div><p>

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      </p></div><div class="section" title="Data Source Backends"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id1168230285886"></a>Data Source Backends</h2></div></div></div><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
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        For the development prototype release, <span class="command"><strong>b10-auth</strong></span>
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        only supports the SQLite3 data source backend.
        Upcoming versions will be able to use multiple different
        data sources, such as MySQL, Berkeley DB, or in-memory DB.
      </p></div><p>
        By default, the SQLite3 backend uses the data file located at
        <code class="filename">/usr/local/var/bind10-devel/zone.sqlite3</code>.
        (The full path is what was defined at build configure time for
        <code class="option">--localstatedir</code>.
        The default is <code class="filename">/usr/local/var/</code>.)
  This data file location may be changed by defining the
  <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">database_file</span>&#8221;</span> configuration.
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      </p></div><div class="section" title="Loading Master Zones Files"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a name="id1168230285917"></a>Loading Master Zones Files</h2></div></div></div><p>
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        RFC 1035 style DNS master zone files may imported
        into a BIND 10 data source by using the
        <span class="command"><strong>b10-loadzone</strong></span> utility.
      </p><p>
        <span class="command"><strong>b10-loadzone</strong></span> supports the following
        special directives (control entries):

        </p><div class="variablelist"><dl><dt><span class="term">$INCLUDE</span></dt><dd>Loads an additional zone file. This may be recursive.
              </dd><dt><span class="term">$ORIGIN</span></dt><dd>Defines the relative domain name.
              </dd><dt><span class="term">$TTL</span></dt><dd>Defines the time-to-live value used for following
                records that don't include a TTL.
              </dd></dl></div><p>

      </p><p>
        The <code class="option">-o</code> argument may be used to define the
        default origin for loaded zone file records.
      </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
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        In the development prototype release, only the SQLite3 back
        end is used.
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        By default, it stores the zone data in
        <code class="filename">/usr/local/var/bind10-devel/zone.sqlite3</code>
        unless the <code class="option">-d</code> switch is used to set the
        database filename.
        Multiple zones are stored in a single SQLite3 zone database.
      </p></div><p>
        If you reload a zone already existing in the database,
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        all records from that prior zone disappear and a whole new set
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        appears.
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      </p></div></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 9. Incoming Zone Transfers"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="xfrin"></a>Chapter 9. Incoming Zone Transfers</h2></div></div></div><p>
      The <span class="command"><strong>b10-xfrin</strong></span> process is started by
      <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span>.
      It can be manually triggered to request an AXFR zone
      transfer. When received, it is stored in the BIND 10
      data store, and its records can be served by
      <span class="command"><strong>b10-auth</strong></span>.
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      In combination with <span class="command"><strong>b10-zonemgr</strong></span> (for
      automated SOA checks), this allows the BIND 10 server to
      provide <span class="quote">&#8220;<span class="quote">secondary</span>&#8221;</span> service.
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    </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
     The current development release of BIND 10 only supports
     AXFR. (IXFR is not supported.) 
    </p></div><p>
       To manually trigger a zone transfer to retrieve a remote zone,
       you may use the <span class="command"><strong>bindctl</strong></span> utility.
       For example, at the <span class="command"><strong>bindctl</strong></span> prompt run:

       </p><pre class="screen">&gt; <strong class="userinput"><code>Xfrin retransfer zone_name="<code class="option">foo.example.org</code>" master=<code class="option">192.0.2.99</code></code></strong></pre><p>
    </p></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 10. Outbound Zone Transfers"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="xfrout"></a>Chapter 10. Outbound Zone Transfers</h2></div></div></div><p>
      The <span class="command"><strong>b10-xfrout</strong></span> process is started by
      <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span>.
      When the <span class="command"><strong>b10-auth</strong></span> authoritative DNS server
      receives an AXFR request, <span class="command"><strong>b10-xfrout</strong></span>
      sends the zone.
      This is used to provide master DNS service to share zones
      to secondary name servers.
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      The <span class="command"><strong>b10-xfrout</strong></span> is also used to send
      NOTIFY messages to slaves.
Jeremy C. Reed's avatar
Jeremy C. Reed committed
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    </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
     The current development release of BIND 10 only supports
     AXFR. (IXFR is not supported.) 
     Access control is not yet provided.
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    </p></div></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 11. Secondary Manager"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="zonemgr"></a>Chapter 11. Secondary Manager</h2></div></div></div><p>
      The <span class="command"><strong>b10-zonemgr</strong></span> process is started by
      <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span>.
      It keeps track of SOA refresh, retry, and expire timers
      and other details for BIND 10 to perform as a slave.
      When the <span class="command"><strong>b10-auth</strong></span> authoritative DNS server
      receives a NOTIFY message, <span class="command"><strong>b10-zonemgr</strong></span>
      may tell <span class="command"><strong>b10-xfrin</strong></span> to do a refresh
      to start an inbound zone transfer.
      The secondary manager resets its counters when a new zone is
      transferred in.
    </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
     Access control (such as allowing notifies) is not yet provided.
     The primary/secondary service is not yet complete.
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    </p></div></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 12. Recursive Name Server"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="resolverserver"></a>Chapter 12. Recursive Name Server</h2></div></div></div><p>
      The <span class="command"><strong>b10-resolver</strong></span> process is started by
      <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span>.

    </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
      The current version only provides a forwarding DNS server.
      It does not cache and does not iterate to find answers.
      It simply forwards the query on to another full resolver.
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    </p></div><p>
      The main <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span> process can be configured
      to select to run either the authoritative or resolver.
      By default, it starts the authoritative service.


      You may change this using <span class="command"><strong>bindctl</strong></span>, for example:

      </p><pre class="screen">
&gt; <strong class="userinput"><code>config set Boss/start_auth false</code></strong>
&gt; <strong class="userinput"><code>config set Boss/start_resolver true</code></strong>
&gt; <strong class="userinput"><code>config commit</code></strong>
</pre><p>

    </p><div class="note" title="Note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
       In the current version, the master <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span>
       process must be stopped and restarted to start up the resolver.
    </p></div><p>
      Then the upstream address and port must be configured to
      forward queries to, such as:

      </p><pre class="screen">
&gt; <strong class="userinput"><code>config set Resolver/forward_addresses [{ "address": "<em class="replaceable"><code>192.168.1.1</code></em>", "port": 53 }]</code></strong>
&gt; <strong class="userinput"><code>config commit</code></strong>
</pre><p>

      (Replace <em class="replaceable"><code>192.168.1.1</code></em> to point to your
      full resolver.)
    </p><p>
      The resolver also needs to be configured to listen on an address
      and port:

      </p><pre class="screen">
&gt; <strong class="userinput"><code>config set Resolver/listen_on [{ "address": "127.0.0.1", "port": 53 }]</code></strong>
&gt; <strong class="userinput"><code>config commit</code></strong>
</pre><p>
    </p></div><div class="chapter" title="Chapter 13. Statistics"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title"><a name="statistics"></a>Chapter 13. Statistics</h2></div></div></div><p>
      The <span class="command"><strong>b10-stats</strong></span> process is started by
      <span class="command"><strong>bind10</strong></span>.
      It periodically collects statistics data from various modules
      and aggregates it.

    </p><p>

       This stats daemon provides commands to identify if it is running,
       show specified or all statistics data, set values, remove data,
       and reset data.

       For example, using <span class="command"><strong>bindctl</strong></span>:

       </p><pre class="screen">
&gt; <strong class="userinput"><code>Stats show</code></strong>
{
    "auth.queries.tcp": 1749,
    "auth.queries.udp": 867868,
    "bind10.boot_time": "2011-01-20T16:59:03Z",
    "report_time": "2011-01-20T17:04:06Z",
    "stats.boot_time": "2011-01-20T16:59:05Z",
    "stats.last_update_time": "2011-01-20T17:04:05Z",
    "stats.lname": "4d3869d9_a@jreed.example.net",
    "stats.start_time": "2011-01-20T16:59:05Z",
    "stats.timestamp": 1295543046.823504
}
       </pre><p>
    </p></div></div></body></html>