Commit e7e89d34 authored by Shawn Routhier's avatar Shawn Routhier
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[trac4101] Add classify.xml file

Add the chapter about classification
parent 192e415b
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.2//EN"
"http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.2/docbookx.dtd" [
<!ENTITY mdash "&#x2014;" >
]>
<chapter id="classify">
<title>Client Classification</title>
<section>
<title>Client Classification Overview</title>
<para>
In certain cases it is useful to differentiate between different
types of clients and treat them differently. There are many reasons
why one might want to treat clients different some common reasons
include:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>
The clients represent different pieces of topology, for example a cable
modem vs the clients behind that modem.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The clients have different behavior, for example a smart phone vs a lapttop
vs a desktop.
</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>
The clients require different values for some options, for example a docsis3.0
cable modem vs a docsis2.0 cable modem.
</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
<para>
It is envisaged that client classification will be used for changing the
behavior of almost any part of the DHCP message processing, including assigning
leases from different pools, assigning different options (or different values of
the same options) etc. For now, there are only two mechanisms that take
advantage of client classification: subnet selection and assigning different
options. For cable modems there are specific options for use with the TFTP
server address and the boot file field.
</para>
<para>
The process of doing classification is conducted in three steps. The first step
is to assess an incoming packet and assign it to zero or more classes. The
second step is to choose a subnet, possibly based on the class information.
The third step is to assign options again possibly based on the class
information.
</para>
<para>
Options will be included from all of the assigned classes. In the case two
or more classes include an option the value from the first class will be used.
Similarly if two or more classes are associated with a subnet the first subnet
will be used. In the future the processing order of the various classes may
be specified but for now it is being left unspecified and may change in
future releases.
</para>
<para>
There are two methods of doing classification. The first is automatic and relies
on examining the values in the vendor class options. Information from these
options is extracted and a class name is constructed from it and added to
the class list for the packet. The second allows you to specify an expression
that is evaluated for each packet. If the result is true the packet is
a member of the class.
</para>
<note>
<para>
The power of the expressions in the classification step is deliberately
limited in order to minimize the amount of time required to process each
expression. The expression for each class must be executed on each packet,
if they are overly complex or time consuming they may impact the performance
of the server. If you require complex or time consuming expressions you
should write a hook to perform the necessary work.
</para>
</note>
<note>
<para>
Care should be taken with client classification as it is easy for
clients that do not meet class criteria to be denied any service altogether.
</para>
</note>
</section>
<section id="classification-using-vendor">
<title>Using Vendor Class Information In Classification</title>
<para>
The server checks whether an incoming DHCPv4 packet includes
the vendor class identifier option (60) or an incoming DHCPv6 packet
includes the vendor class option (16). If it does, the content of that
option is prepended with &quot;VENDOR_CLASS_&quot; then it is interpreted
as a class. For example, modern cable modems will send this option with
value &quot;docsis3.0&quot; and as a result the packet will belong to
class &quot;VENDOR_CLASS_docsis3.0&quot;.
</para>
</section>
<section id="classification-using-expressions">
<title>Using Expressions In Classification</title>
<para>
The expression portion of classification contains operators and values.
Values are currently strings and operators take a string or strings and
return another string. When all the operations have completed
the result should be a value of &quot;true&quot; or &quot;false&quot;.
The packet belongs to
the class (and the class name is added to the list of classes) if the result
is &quot;true&quot;. Expressions are written in standard format and can be nested.
</para>
<para>
Expressions are pre-processed during the parsing of the configuration file
and converted to an internal representation. This allows certain types of
errors (such as incorrect syntax) to be caught and logged. Other errors
(for example mistakes when setting up the values for a substring) won't be
caught and may affect the classification. In general if an expression has
a problem a log message will be emitted at the debug level and the result
will be an empty string.
</para>
<para>
The expressions are a work in progress and the supported operators and
values are limited. The expectation is that additional operators and values
will be added over time, however it is expected the basic mechanisms will
remain the same.
</para>
<para>
<table frame="all" id="classification-values-list">
<title>List of Classification Values</title>
<tgroup cols='3'>
<colspec colname='name' />
<colspec colname='example' />
<colspec colname='description' />
<thead>
<row>
<entry>Name</entry>
<entry>Example</entry>
<entry>Description</entry>
</row>
</thead>
<tbody>
<row><entry>String</entry><entry>'example'</entry><entry>A string</entry></row>
<row><entry>Hex String</entry><entry>'0XABCD'</entry><entry>A hexadecimal string</entry></row>
<row><entry>Option</entry><entry>option[code]</entry><entry>The value of the option with code "code" from the packet</entry></row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</table>
</para>
<para>
Hex Strings are converted into a string as expected. The starting &quot;0X&quot; or
&quot;0x&quot; is removed and if the string is an odd number of characters a
&quot;0&quot; is prepended to it.
</para>
<para>
Option extracts the value of the given option from the incoming packet. If the
packet doesn't contain the option it returns an empty string.
</para>
<para>
<table frame="all" id="classification-expressions-list">
<title>List of Classification Expressions</title>
<tgroup cols='3'>
<colspec colname='name' />
<colspec colname='example' />
<colspec colname='description' />
<thead>
<row>
<entry>Name</entry>
<entry>Example</entry>
<entry>Description</entry>
</row>
</thead>
<tbody>
<row><entry>Equal</entry> <entry>'foo' == 'bar'</entry><entry>Compare the two values and return "true" or "false"</entry></row>
<row><entry>Substring</entry><entry>substring('foobar',0,3)</entry><entry>Return the requested substring</entry></row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</table>
</para>
<para>
The substring operator substring(value, start, length) accepts both positive and
negative values for the starting position and the length. For start a value of
0 is the first byte in the string while -1 is the last byte. If the starting
point is outside of the original string an empty string is returned. Length
is the number of bytes to extract. A negative number means to count towards
the beginning of the string but doesn't include the byte pointed to by start.
The special value "all" means to return all bytes from start to the end of the
string. If length is longer than the remaining portion of the string then
the entire remaining portion is returned.
</para>
</section>
<section id="classification-configuring">
<title>Configuring Classes</title>
<para>
A class contains three items: a name, a test expression and option data.
The name must exist and must be unique amongst all classes. The test
expression and option data are optional.
</para>
<para>
The test expression is a string containing the logical expression used to
determine membership in the class. The entire expression is in double
quotes.
</para>
<para>
The option data is a list which defines any options that should be assigned
to members of this class.
</para>
<para>
<screen>
"Dhcp4": {
"subnet4": [
{
"subnet": "192.0.2.0/24",
"pools": [ { "pool": "192.0.2.10 - 192.0.2.20" } ],
"client-class": "Client_foo"
}
],
"client-class": [
<userinput>
{
"name": "Client_foo",
"test": "substring(option[61],0,3) == 'foo'",
"option-data": [
{
"name": "doamin-name-servers",
"code": 6,
"space": "dhcp4",
"csv-format": true,
"data": "192.0.2.1, 192.0.2.2"
}
]
}
</userinput>
...
}</screen>
</para>
<para>
In this example the class named &quot;Client_foo&quot; is defined. It is comprised
of all clients who's client ids (option 61) start with the string &quot;foo&quot;.
They will be given an address from 192.0.2.10 to 192.0.2.20 and 192.0.2.1
and 192.0.2.2 as their domain name servers.
</para>
</section>
<section id="classification-subnets">
<title>Configuring Subnets With Class Information</title>
<para>
In certain cases it beneficial to restrict access to certain subnets
only to clients that belong to a given subnet. For details on client
classes, see <xref linkend="classification-using-vendor"/> and
<xref linkend="classification-using-expressions"/>
Let's assume that the server is connected to a network segment that uses
the 192.0.2.0/24 prefix. The Administrator of that network has decided
that addresses from range 192.0.2.10 to 192.0.2.20 are going to be
managed by the DHCP4 server. Only clients belonging to client class
example_class are allowed to use this subnet. Such a
configuration can be achieved in the following way:
<screen>
"Dhcp4": {
"subnet4": [
{
<userinput>"subnet": "192.0.2.0/24",
"pools": [ { "pool": "192.0.2.10 - 192.0.2.20" } ],
"client-class": "example_class"</userinput>
}
],
...
}</screen>
</para>
</section>
<section>
<title>Using Classes</title>
<para>
Currently classes can be used for two functions. They can supply options
to the members class and they can choose a subnet for the members of the class.
</para>
<para>
When supplying options class options defined as part of the class definition
are considred &quot;class globals&quot;. They will override any global options that
may be defined and in turn will be overridden by any options defined for an
individual subnet.
</para>
</section>
<section>
<title>Classes and Hooks</title>
<para>
You may use a hook to classify your packets. This may be useful if the
expression would either be complex or time consuming and be easier or
better to write as code. Once the hook has added the proper class name
to the packet the rest of the classification system will work as normal
in choosing a subnet and selecting options.
</para>
</section>
</chapter>
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