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<title>Appendix B. A Brief History of the DNS and BIND</title>
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<tr><th colspan="3" align="center">Appendix B. A Brief History of the <acronym class="acronym">DNS</acronym> and <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym>
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<div class="titlepage"><div><div><h1 class="title">
<a name="Bv9ARM.ch10"></a>A Brief History of the <acronym class="acronym">DNS</acronym> and <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym>
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      <p><a name="historical_dns_information"></a>
        Although the "official" beginning of the Domain Name
        System occurred in 1984 with the publication of RFC 920, the
        core of the new system was described in 1983 in RFCs 882 and
        883. From 1984 to 1987, the ARPAnet (the precursor to today's
        Internet) became a testbed of experimentation for developing the
        new naming/addressing scheme in a rapidly expanding,
        operational network environment.  New RFCs were written and
        published in 1987 that modified the original documents to
        incorporate improvements based on the working model. RFC 1034,
        "Domain Names-Concepts and Facilities", and RFC 1035, "Domain
        Names-Implementation and Specification" were published and
        became the standards upon which all <acronym class="acronym">DNS</acronym> implementations are
        built.
      </p>

      <p>
        The first working domain name server, called "Jeeves", was
        written in 1983-84 by Paul Mockapetris for operation on DEC
        Tops-20
        machines located at the University of Southern California's
        Information
        Sciences Institute (USC-ISI) and SRI International's Network
        Information
        Center (SRI-NIC). A <acronym class="acronym">DNS</acronym> server for
        Unix machines, the Berkeley Internet
        Name Domain (<acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym>) package, was
        written soon after by a group of
        graduate students at the University of California at Berkeley
        under
        a grant from the US Defense Advanced Research Projects
        Administration
        (DARPA).
      </p>
      <p>
        Versions of <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym> through
        4.8.3 were maintained by the Computer
        Systems Research Group (CSRG) at UC Berkeley. Douglas Terry, Mark
        Painter, David Riggle and Songnian Zhou made up the initial <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym>
        project team. After that, additional work on the software package
        was done by Ralph Campbell. Kevin Dunlap, a Digital Equipment
        Corporation
        employee on loan to the CSRG, worked on <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym> for 2 years, from 1985
        to 1987. Many other people also contributed to <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym> development
        during that time: Doug Kingston, Craig Partridge, Smoot
        Carl-Mitchell,
        Mike Muuss, Jim Bloom and Mike Schwartz. <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym> maintenance was subsequently
        handled by Mike Karels and Øivind Kure.
      </p>
      <p>
        <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym> versions 4.9 and 4.9.1 were
        released by Digital Equipment
        Corporation (now Compaq Computer Corporation). Paul Vixie, then
        a DEC employee, became <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym>'s
        primary caretaker. He was assisted
        by Phil Almquist, Robert Elz, Alan Barrett, Paul Albitz, Bryan
        Beecher, Andrew
        Partan, Andy Cherenson, Tom Limoncelli, Berthold Paffrath, Fuat
        Baran, Anant Kumar, Art Harkin, Win Treese, Don Lewis, Christophe
        Wolfhugel, and others.
      </p>
      <p>
        In 1994, <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym> version 4.9.2 was sponsored by
        Vixie Enterprises. Paul
        Vixie became <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym>'s principal
        architect/programmer.
      </p>
      <p>
        <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym> versions from 4.9.3 onward
        have been developed and maintained
        by the Internet Systems Consortium and its predecessor,
        the Internet Software Consortium,  with support being provided
        by ISC's sponsors.
      </p>
      <p>
        As co-architects/programmers, Bob Halley and
        Paul Vixie released the first production-ready version of
        <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym> version 8 in May 1997.
      </p>
      <p>
        BIND version 9 was released in September 2000 and is a
        major rewrite of nearly all aspects of the underlying
        BIND architecture.
      </p>
      <p>
        BIND versions 4 and 8 are officially deprecated.
        No additional development is done
        on BIND version 4 or BIND version 8.
      </p>
      <p>
        <acronym class="acronym">BIND</acronym> development work is made
        possible today by the sponsorship
        of several corporations, and by the tireless work efforts of
        numerous individuals.
      </p>
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