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.\" Copyright (C) 2000 Internet Software Consortium.
.\"
.\" Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
.\" purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
.\" copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
.\"
.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND INTERNET SOFTWARE CONSORTIUM
.\" DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL
.\" INTERNET SOFTWARE CONSORTIUM BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT,
.\" INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING
.\" FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
.\" NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
.\" WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
.\"
.\" $Id: host.1,v 1.5 2000/08/22 17:02:49 gson Exp $
.\"
.Dd Jun 30, 2000
.Dt HOST 1
.Os BIND9 9
.ds vT BIND9 Programmer's Manual
.Sh NAME
.Nm host
.Nd DNS lookup utility
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm host
.Op Fl aCdlnrTwv
.Op Fl c Ar class
.Op Fl N Ar ndots
.Op Fl R Ar number
.Op Fl t Ar type
.Op Fl W Ar wait
.Ar name
.Op Ar server
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Nm host
is a simple utility for performing DNS lookups.
It is normally used to convert names to IP addresses and vice versa.
When no arguments or options are given,
.Nm host
prints a short summary of its command line arguments and options.
.Pp
.Ar name
is the domain name that is to be looked up.
It can also be a dotted-decimal IPv4 address
or a colon-delimited IPv6 address,
in which case
.Nm host
will by default perform a reverse lookup for that address.
.Ar server
is an optional argument which is either the name or IP address of the
name server that
.Nm host
should query instead of the server or servers listed in
.Pa /etc/resolv.conf .
.Pp
The
.Fl a
(all) option is equivalent to setting the
.Fl v
option and asking
.Nm host
to make a query of type ANY.
.Pp
When the
.Fl C
option is used,
.Nm host
will attempt to display the SOA records for zone
.Ar name
from all the listed authoritative name servers for that zone.
The list of name servers is defined by the NS records that are found for
the zone.
.Pp
The
.Fl c
option instructs to make a DNS query of class
.Ar class .
This can be used to lookup Hesiod or Chaosnet class resource records.
The default class is IN: Internet.
.Pp
Verbose output is generated by
.Nm host
when the
.Fl d
or
.Fl v
option is used.
The two options are equivalent.
They have been provided for backwards compatibility.
In previous versions, the
.Fl d
option switched on debugging traces and
.Fl v
enabled verbose output.
.Pp
List mode is selected by the
.Fl l
option.
This makes
.Nm host
perform a zone transfer for zone
.Ar name .
The argument is provided for compatibility with older implemementations.
This option is equivalent to making a query of type AXFR.
.Pp
The
.Fl n
option specifies that reverse lookups of IPv6 addresses should
use the IP6.INT domain and "nibble" labels as defined in RFC1886.
The default is to use IP6.ARPA and binary labels as defined in RFC2874.
.Pp
The
.Fl N
option sets the number of dots that have to be in
.Ar name
for it to be considered absolute. The default value is that
defined using the ndots statement in
.Pa /etc/resolv.conf ,
or 1 if no ndots statement is present. Names with fewer
dots are interpreted as relative names and will be searched
for in the domains listed in the
.Dv search
or
.Dv domain
directive in
.Pa /etc/resolv.conf .
.Pp
The number of UDP retries for a lookup can be changed with the
.Fl R
option.
.Ar number
indicates how many times
.Nm host
will repeat a query that does not get answered.
The default number of retries is 1.
If
.Ar number
is negative or zero, the number of retries will default to 1.
.Pp
Non-recursive queries can be made via the
.Fl r
option.
Setting this option clears the
.Dv RD
- recursion desired - bit in the query which
.Nm host
makes.
This should mean that the name server receiving the query will not attempt
to resolve
.Ar name .
The
.Fl r
option enables
.Nm host
to mimic the behaviour of a name server by making non-recursive queries
and expecting to receive answers to those queries that are usually
referrals to other name servers.
.Pp
By default
.Nm host
uses UDP when making queries.
The
.Fl T
option makes it use a TCP connection when querying the name server.
TCP will be automatically selected for queries that require it,
such as zone transfer (AXFR) requests.
.Pp
The
.Fl t
option is used to select the query type.
.Ar type
can be any recognised query type: CNAME, NS, SOA, SIG, KEY, AXFR, etc.
When no query type is specified,
.Nm host
automatically selects an appropriate query type.
By default it looks for A records, but if the
.Fl C
option was given, queries will be made for SOA records,
and if
.Ar name
is a dotted-decimal IPv4 address or colon-delimited IPv6 address,
.Nm host
will query for PTR records.
.Pp
The time to wait for a reply can be controlled through the
.Fl W
and
.Fl w
options.
The
.Fl W
option makes
.Nm host
wait for
.Ar wait
seconds.
If
.Ar wait
is less than one,
the wait interval is set to one second.
When the
.Fl w
option is used,
.Nm host
will effectively wait forever for a reply.
The time to wait for a response will be set to the number of seconds
given by the hardware's maximum value for an integer quantity.
.Sh FILES
.Pa /etc/resolv.conf
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr dig 1 ,
.Xr resolver 5
.Xr named 8 .
.\" Copyright (C) 2000 Internet Software Consortium.
.\"
.\" Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
.\" purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
.\" copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
.\"
.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND INTERNET SOFTWARE CONSORTIUM
.\" DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL
.\" INTERNET SOFTWARE CONSORTIUM BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT,
.\" INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING
.\" FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
.\" NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
.\" WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
.\"
.\" $Id: nsupdate.8,v 1.7 2000/08/15 20:15:49 gson Exp $
.\"
.Dd Jun 30, 2000
.Dt NSUPDATE 8
.Os BIND9 9
.ds vT BIND9 Programmer's Manual
.Sh NAME
.Nm nsupdate
.Nd Dynamic DNS update utility
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm nsupdate
.Op Fl d
.Oo
.Fl y Ar keyname:secret |
.Fl k Ar keyfile
.Oc
.Op Fl v
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Nm nsupdate
is used to submit Dynamic DNS Update requests as defined in RFC2136
to a name server.
This allows resource records to be added or removed from a zone
without manually editing the zone file.
A single update request can contain requests to add or remove more than one
resource record.
.Pp
Zones that are under dynamic control via
.Nm nsupdate
or a DHCP server should not be edited by hand.
Manual edits could
conflict with dynamic updates and cause data to be lost.
.Pp
The resource records that are dynamically added or removed with
.Nm nsupdate
have to be in the same zone.
Requests are sent to the zone's master server.
This is identified by the MNAME field of the zone's SOA record.
.Pp
The
.Fl d
option makes
.Nm nsupdate
operate in debug mode.
This provides tracing information about the update requests that are
made and the replies received from the name server.
.Pp
Transaction signatures can be used to authenticate the Dynamic DNS
updates.
These use the TSIG resource record type described in RFC2845.
The signatures rely on a shared secret that should only be known to
.Nm nsupdate
and the name server.
Currently, the only supported encryption algorithm for TSIG is
HMAC-MD5, which is defined in RFC 2104.
Once other algorithms are defined for TSIG, applications will need to
ensure they select the appropriate algorithm as well as the key when
authenticating each other.
For instance suitable
.Dv key{}
and
.Dv server{}
statements would be added to
.Pa /etc/named.conf
so that the name server can associate the appropriate secret key
and algorithm with the IP address of the
client application that will be using TSIG authentication.
.Nm nsupdate
does not read
.Pa /etc/named.conf .
.Pp
.Nm nsupdate
uses the
.Fl y
or
.Fl k
option to provide the shared secret needed to generate a TSIG record
for authenticating Dynamic DNS update requests.
These options are mutually exclusive.
With the
.Fl k
option,
.Nm nsupdate
reads the shared secret from the file
.Ar keyfile ,
whose name is of the form
.Pa K{name}.+157.+{random}.private .
For historical
reasons, the file
.Pa K{name}.+157.+{random}.key
must also be present. When the
.Fl y
option is used, a signature is generated from
.Ar keyname:secret.
.Ar keyname
is the name of the key,
and
.Ar secret
is the base64 encoded shared secret.
Use of the
.Fl y
option is discouraged because the shared secret is supplied as a command
line argument in clear text.
This may be visible in the output from
.Xr ps 1
or in a history file maintained by the user's shell.
.Pp
By default
.Nm nsupdate
uses UDP to send update requests to the name server.
The
.Fl v
option makes
.Nm nsupdate
use a TCP connection.
This may be preferable when a batch of update requests is made.
.Sh INPUT FORMAT
.Nm nsupdate
reads commands from its standard input.
Each command is supplied on exactly one line of input.
Some commands are for administrative purposes.
The others are either update instructions or prerequisite checks on the
contents of the zone.
These checks set conditions that some name or set of
resource records (RRset) either exists or is absent from the zone.
These conditions must be met if the entire update request is to succeed.
Updates will be rejected if the tests for the prerequisite conditions fail.
.Pp
Every update request consists of zero or more prerequisites
and zero or more updates.
This allows a suitably authenticated update request to proceed if some
specified resource records are present or missing from the zone.
A blank input line causes the accumulated commands to be sent as one Dynamic
DNS update request to the name server.
.Pp
The command formats and their meaning are as follows:
.Bl -ohang indent
.It Xo
.Ic server Va servername Op port
.Xc
.sp 1
Sends all dynamic update requests to the name server
.Va servername .
When no server statement is provided,
.Nm nsupdate
will send updates to the master server of the correct zone.
The MNAME field of that zone's SOA record will identify the master
server for that zone.
.Va port
is the port number on
.Va servername
where the dynamic update requests get sent.
If no port number is specified, the default DNS port number of 53 is
used.
.It Xo
.Ic zone Va zonename
.Xc
.sp 1
Specifies that all updates are to be made to the zone
.Va zonename .
If no
.Va zone
statement is provided,
.Nm nsupdate
will attempt determine the correct zone to update based on the rest of the input.
.It Xo
.Ic prereq nxdomain Va domain-name
.Xc
.sp 1
Requires that no resource record of any type exists with name
.Va domain-name .
.It Xo
.Ic prereq yxdomain Va domain-name
.Xc
.sp 1
Requires that
.Va domain-name
exists (has as at least one resource record, of any type).
.It Xo
.Ic prereq nxrrset Va domain-name Op class
.Va type
.Xc
.sp 1
Requires that no resource record exists of the specified
.Va type ,
.Va class
and
.Va domain-name .
If
.Va class
is omitted, IN (internet) is assumed.
.It Xo
.Ic prereq yxrrset
.Va domain-name Op class
.Va type
.Xc
.sp 1
This requires that a resource record of the specified
.Va type ,
.Va class
and
.Va domain-name
must exist.
If
.Va class
is omitted, IN (internet) is assumed.
.It Xo
.Ic prereq yxrrset
.Va domain-name Op class
.Va type data...
.Xc
.sp 1
The
.Va data
from each set of prerequisites of this form
sharing a common
.Va type ,
.Va class ,
and
.Va domain-name
are combined to form a set of RRs. This set of RRs must
exactly match the set of RRs existing in the zone at the
given
.Va type ,
.Va class ,
and
.Va domain-name .
The
.Va data
are written in the standard text representation of the resource record's
RDATA.
.It Xo
.Ic update delete
.Va domain-name Op class
.Va Op type Op data...
.Xc
.sp 1
Deletes any resource records named
.Va domain-name .
If
.Va type
and
.Va data
is provided, only matching resource records will be removed.
The internet class is assumed if
.Va class
is not supplied.
.It Xo
.Ic update add
.Va domain-name ttl Op class
.Va type data..
.Xc
.sp 1
Adds a new resource record with the specified
.Va ttl ,
.Va class
and
.Va data .
.El
.Sh EXAMPLES
The examples below show how
.Nm nsupdate
could be used to insert and delete resource records from the
.Dv example.com
zone.
Notice that the input in each example contains a trailing blank line so that
a group of commands are sent as one dynamic update request to the
master name server for
.Dv example.com .
.Bd -literal -offset indent
# nsupdate
> update delete oldhost.example.com A
> update add newhost.example.com 86400 A 172.16.1.1
>
.Ed
.Pp
Any A records for
.Dv oldhost.example.com
are deleted.
and an A record for
.Dv newhost.example.com
it IP address 172.16.1.1 is added.
The newly-added record has a 1 day TTL (86400 seconds)
.Bd -literal -offset indent
# nsupdate
> prereq nxdomain nickname.example.com
> update add nickname.example.com CNAME somehost.example.com
>
.Ed
.Pp
The prerequisite condition gets the name server to check that there
are no resource records of any type for
.Dv nickname.example.com .
If there are, the update request fails.
If this name does not exist, a CNAME for it is added.
This ensures that when the CNAME is added, it cannot conflict with the
long-standing rule in RFC1034 that a name must not exist as any other
record type if it exists as a CNAME.
(The rule has been updated for DNSSEC in RFC2535 to allow CNAMEs to have
SIG, KEY and NXT records.)
.Pp
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width K{name}.+157.+{random}.private -compact
.It Pa /etc/resolv.conf
used to identify default name server
.It Pa K{name}.+157.+{random}.key
base-64 encoding of HMAC-MD5 key created by
.Xr dnssec-keygen 8 .
.It Pa K{name}.+157.+{random}.private
base-64 encoding of HMAC-MD5 key created by
.Xr dnssec-keygen 8 .
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr RFC2136 ,
.Xr RFC2137 ,
.Xr RFC2104 ,
.Xr RFC2845 ,
.Xr RFC1034 ,
.Xr RFC2535 ,
.Xr named 8 ,
.Xr dnssec-keygen 8 .
.Sh BUGS
The TSIG key is redundantly stored in two separate files.
This is a consequence of nsupdate using the DST library
for its cryptographic operations, and may change in future
releases.
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