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><DIV
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><H1
><A
NAME="ch02"
>Chapter 2. <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> Resource Requirements</A
></H1
><DIV
CLASS="TOC"
><DL
><DT
><B
>Table of Contents</B
></DT
><DT
>2.1. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch02.html#AEN230"
>Hardware requirements</A
></DT
><DT
>2.2. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch02.html#AEN238"
>CPU Requirements</A
></DT
><DT
>2.3. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch02.html#AEN242"
>Memory Requirements</A
></DT
><DT
>2.4. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch02.html#AEN247"
>Nameserver Intensive Environment Issues</A
></DT
><DT
>2.5. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch02.html#AEN250"
>Supported Operating Systems</A
></DT
></DL
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect1"
><H1
CLASS="sect1"
><A
NAME="AEN230"
>2.1. Hardware requirements</A
></H1
><P
><SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>DNS</SPAN
> hardware requirements have traditionally been quite modest.
For many installations, servers that have been pensioned off from
active duty have performed admirably as <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>DNS</SPAN
> servers.</P
><P
>The DNSSEC and IPv6 features of <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 may prove to be quite
CPU intensive however, so organizations that make heavy use of these
features may wish to consider larger systems for these applications.
<SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 is now fully multithreaded, allowing full utilization of
multiprocessor systems for installations that need it.</P
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect1"
><H1
CLASS="sect1"
><A
NAME="AEN238"
>2.2. CPU Requirements</A
></H1
><P
>CPU requirements for <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 range from i486-class machines
for serving of static zones without caching, to enterprise-class
machines if you intend to process many dynamic updates and DNSSEC
signed zones, serving many thousands of queries per second.</P
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect1"
><H1
CLASS="sect1"
><A
NAME="AEN242"
>2.3. Memory Requirements</A
></H1
><P
>The memory of the server has to be large enough to fit the
cache and zones loaded off disk. Future releases of <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 will
provide methods to limit the amount of memory used by the cache,
at the expense of reducing cache hit rates and causing more <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>DNS</SPAN
>
traffic. It is still good practice to have enough memory to load
all zone and cache data into memory &#8212; unfortunately, the best way
to determine this for a given installation is to watch the nameserver
in operation. After a few weeks the server process should reach
a relatively stable size where entries are expiring from the cache as
fast as they are being inserted. Ideally, the resource limits should
be set higher than this stable size.</P
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect1"
><H1
CLASS="sect1"
><A
NAME="AEN247"
>2.4. Nameserver Intensive Environment Issues</A
></H1
><P
>For nameserver intensive environments, there are two alternative
configurations that may be used. The first is where clients and
any second-level internal nameservers query a main nameserver, which
has enough memory to build a large cache. This approach minimizes
the bandwidth used by external name lookups. The second alternative
is to set up second-level internal nameservers to make queries independently.
In this configuration, none of the individual machines needs to
have as much memory or CPU power as in the first alternative, but
this has the disadvantage of making many more external queries,
as none of the nameservers share their cached data.</P
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect1"
><H1
CLASS="sect1"
><A
NAME="AEN250"
>2.5. Supported Operating Systems</A
></H1
><P
>ISC <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 compiles and runs on the following operating
systems:</P
><P
></P
><UL
><LI
><P
>IBM AIX 4.3</P
></LI
><LI
><P
>Compaq Digital/Tru64 UNIX 4.0D</P
></LI
><LI
><P
>HP HP-UX 11</P
></LI
><LI
><P
>IRIX64 6.5</P
></LI
><LI
><P
>Red Hat Linux 6.0, 6.1</P
></LI
><LI
><P
>Sun Solaris 2.6, 7, 8 (beta)</P
></LI
><LI
><P
>FreeBSD 3.4-STABLE</P
></LI
><LI
><P
>NetBSD-current with "unproven" pthreads</P
></LI
></UL
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><TR
><TD
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>Introduction</TD
><TD
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>&nbsp;</TD
><TD
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>Nameserver Configuration</TD
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<HTML
><HEAD
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>The BIND 9 Lightweight Resolver</TITLE
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><A
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>Chapter 5. The <SPAN
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>BIND</SPAN
> 9 Lightweight Resolver</A
></H1
><DIV
CLASS="TOC"
><DL
><DT
><B
>Table of Contents</B
></DT
><DT
>5.1. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch05.html#AEN989"
>The Lightweight Resolver Library</A
></DT
><DT
>5.2. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch05.html#AEN995"
>Running a Resolver Daemon</A
></DT
></DL
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect1"
><H1
CLASS="sect1"
><A
NAME="AEN989"
>5.1. The Lightweight Resolver Library</A
></H1
><P
>Traditionally applications have been linked with a stub resolver
library that sends recursive DNS queries to a local caching name
server.</P
><P
>IPv6 introduces new complexity into the resolution process,
such as following A6 chains and DNAME records, and simultaneous
lookup of IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. These are hard or impossible
to implement in a traditional stub resolver.</P
><P
>Instead, <SPAN
CLASS="acronym"
>BIND</SPAN
> 9 provides resolution services to local clients
using a combination of a lightweight resolver library and a resolver
daemon process running on the local host. These communicate using
a simple UDP-based protocol, the "lightweight resolver protocol"
that is distinct from and simpler than the full DNS protocol.</P
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect1"
><H1
CLASS="sect1"
><A
NAME="AEN995"
>5.2. Running a Resolver Daemon</A
></H1
><P
>To use the lightweight resolver interface, the system must
run the resolver daemon <B
CLASS="command"
>lwresd</B
>.</P
><P
>Applications using the lightweight resolver library will make
UDP requests to the IPv4 loopback address (127.0.0.1) on port 921.
The daemon will try to find the answer to the questions "what are the
addresses for host <SPAN
CLASS="systemitem"
>foo.example.com</SPAN
>?" and "what are
the names for IPv4 address 204.152.184.79?"</P
><P
>The daemon currently only looks in the DNS, but in the future
it may use other sources such as <TT
CLASS="literal"
>/etc/hosts</TT
>,
NIS, etc.</P
><P
>The <B
CLASS="command"
>lwresd</B
> daemon is essentially a stripped-down,
caching-only name server that answers requests using the lightweight
resolver protocol rather than the DNS protocol. Because it needs
to run on each host, it is designed to require no or minimal configuration.
It uses the name servers listed on <B
CLASS="command"
>nameserver</B
> lines
in <TT
CLASS="filename"
>/etc/resolv.conf</TT
> as forwarders, but is also
capable of doing the resolution autonomously if none are specified.</P
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><TR
><TD
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ALIGN="left"
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>Advanced Concepts</TD
><TD
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ALIGN="center"
VALIGN="top"
>&nbsp;</TD
><TD
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><SPAN
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>BIND</SPAN
> 9 Configuration Reference</TD
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><A
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>Chapter 8. Troubleshooting</A
></H1
><DIV
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><DL
><DT
><B
>Table of Contents</B
></DT
><DT
>8.1. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch08.html#AEN3873"
>Common Problems</A
></DT
><DT
>8.2. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch08.html#AEN3879"
>Incrementing and Changing the Serial Number</A
></DT
><DT
>8.3. <A
HREF="Bv9ARM.ch08.html#AEN3884"
>Where Can I Get Help?</A
></DT
></DL
></DIV
><DIV
CLASS="sect1"
><H1