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# BIND 9

### Contents

1. [Introduction](#intro)
1. [Reporting bugs and getting help](#help)
1. [Contributing to BIND](#contrib)
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1. [BIND 9.17 features](#features)
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1. [Building BIND](#build)
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1. [macOS](#macos)
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1. [Dependencies](#dependencies)
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1. [Compile-time options](#opts)
1. [Automated testing](#testing)
1. [Documentation](#doc)
1. [Change log](#changes)
1. [Acknowledgments](#ack)

### <a name="intro"/> Introduction

BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is a complete, highly portable
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implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS) protocol.
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The BIND name server, `named`, can act as an authoritative name
server, recursive resolver, DNS forwarder, or all three simultaneously. It
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implements views for split-horizon DNS, automatic DNSSEC zone signing and
key management, catalog zones to facilitate provisioning of zone data
throughout a name server constellation, response policy zones (RPZ) to
protect clients from malicious data, response rate limiting (RRL) and
recursive query limits to reduce distributed denial of service attacks,
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and many other advanced DNS features. BIND also includes a suite of
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administrative tools, including the `dig` and `delv` DNS lookup tools,
`nsupdate` for dynamic DNS zone updates, `rndc` for remote name server
administration, and more.

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BIND 9 began as a complete rewrite of the BIND architecture that was
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used in versions 4 and 8.  Internet Systems Consortium
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([https://www.isc.org](https://www.isc.org)), a 501(c)(3) US public benefit
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corporation dedicated to providing software and services in support of the
Internet infrastructure, developed BIND 9 and is responsible for its
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ongoing maintenance and improvement. BIND is open source software
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licensed under the terms of the Mozilla Public License, version 2.0.
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For a summary of features introduced in past major releases of BIND,
see the file [HISTORY](HISTORY.md).

For a detailed list of changes made throughout the history of BIND 9, see
the file [CHANGES](CHANGES). See [below](#changes) for details on the
CHANGES file format.

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For up-to-date versions and release notes, see
[https://www.isc.org/download/](https://www.isc.org/download/).
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For information about supported platforms, see [PLATFORMS](PLATFORMS.md).

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### <a name="help"/> Reporting bugs and getting help

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To report non-security-sensitive bugs or request new features, you may
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open an issue in the BIND 9 project on the
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[ISC GitLab server](https://gitlab.isc.org) at
[https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9](https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9).

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Please note that, unless you explicitly mark the newly created issue as
"confidential," it will be publicly readable. Please do not include any
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information in bug reports that you consider to be confidential unless
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the issue has been marked as such. In particular, if submitting the
contents of your configuration file in a non-confidential issue, it is
advisable to obscure key secrets; this can be done automatically by
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using `named-checkconf -px`.

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If you are reporting a bug that is a potential security issue, such as an
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assertion failure or other crash in `named`, please do *NOT* use GitLab to
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report it. Instead, send mail to
[security-officer@isc.org](mailto:security-officer@isc.org) using our
OpenPGP key to secure your message. (Information about OpenPGP and links
to our key can be found at
[https://www.isc.org/pgpkey](https://www.isc.org/pgpkey).) Please do not
discuss the bug on any public mailing list.
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For a general overview of ISC security policies, read the Knowledgebase
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article at [https://kb.isc.org/docs/aa-00861](https://kb.isc.org/docs/aa-00861).

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Professional support and training for BIND are available from
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ISC. Contact us at [https://www.isc.org/contact](https://www.isc.org/contact)
for more information.
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To join the __BIND Users__ mailing list, or view the archives, visit
[https://lists.isc.org/mailman/listinfo/bind-users](https://lists.isc.org/mailman/listinfo/bind-users).

If you're planning on making changes to the BIND 9 source code, you
may also want to join the __BIND Workers__ mailing list, at
[https://lists.isc.org/mailman/listinfo/bind-workers](https://lists.isc.org/mailman/listinfo/bind-workers).

### <a name="contrib"/> Contributing to BIND

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ISC maintains a public git repository for BIND; details can be found
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at [https://www.isc.org/sourceaccess/](https://www.isc.org/sourceaccess/).
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Information for BIND contributors can be found in the following files:
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- General information: [CONTRIBUTING.md](CONTRIBUTING.md)
- Code of Conduct: [CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md](CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md)
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- BIND 9 code style: [doc/dev/style.md](doc/dev/style.md)
- BIND architecture and developer guide: [doc/dev/dev.md](doc/dev/dev.md)

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Patches for BIND may be submitted as
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[merge requests](https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/merge_requests)
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on the [ISC GitLab server](https://gitlab.isc.org).
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By default, external contributors do not have the ability to fork BIND on the
GitLab server; if you wish to contribute code to BIND, you may request
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permission to do so. Thereafter, you can create git branches and directly
submit requests that they be reviewed and merged.

If you prefer, you may also submit code by opening a
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[GitLab issue](https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/issues) and
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including your patch as an attachment, preferably generated by
`git format-patch`.
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### <a name="features"/> BIND 9.17 features
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BIND 9.17 is the newest development branch of BIND 9. It includes a
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number of changes from BIND 9.16 and earlier releases. New features include:

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* The new option `max-ixfr-ratio` to limit the size of outgoing IXFR responses
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  before falling back to full zone transfers.
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* `rndc nta -d` and `rndc secroots` now include `validate-except` entries
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  when listing negative trust anchors.
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### <a name="build"/> Building BIND 9
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At a minimum, BIND requires a Unix or Linux system with an ANSI C compiler,
basic POSIX support, and a 64-bit integer type. BIND also requires the
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`libuv` asynchronous I/O library, and a cryptography provider library
such as OpenSSL or a hardware service module supporting PKCS#11. On
Linux, BIND requires the `libcap` library to set process privileges,
though this requirement can be overridden by disabling capability
support at compile time. See [Compile-time options](#opts) below
for details on other libraries that may be required to support
optional features.

Successful builds have been observed on many versions of Linux and
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Unix, including RHEL/CentOS, Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, SLES, openSUSE,
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Slackware, Alpine, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, macOS, Solaris,
OpenIndiana, OmniOS CE, HP-UX, and OpenWRT.
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BIND 9 is also available for Windows Server 2012 R2 and higher. See
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`win32utils/build.txt` for details on building for Windows
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systems.
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To build on a Unix or Linux system, use:
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		$ autoreconf -fi (if you are building in the git repository)
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		$ ./configure
		$ make

If you're planning on making changes to the BIND 9 source, you should run
`make depend`.  If you're using Emacs, you might find `make tags` helpful.

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Several environment variables, which can be set before running `configure`,
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affect compilation.  Significant ones are:
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|Variable|Description |
|--------------------|-----------------------------------------------|
|`CC`|The C compiler to use.  `configure` tries to figure out the right one for supported systems.|
|`CFLAGS`|C compiler flags.  Defaults to include -g and/or -O2 as supported by the compiler.  Please include '-g' if you need to set `CFLAGS`. |
|`LDFLAGS`|Linker flags. Defaults to empty string.|

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Additional environment variables affecting the build are listed at the
end of the `configure` help text, which can be obtained by running the
command:

    $ ./configure --help

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#### <a name="macos"> macOS
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Building on macOS assumes that the "Command Tools for Xcode" are installed.
These can be downloaded from
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[https://developer.apple.com/download/more/](https://developer.apple.com/download/more/)
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or, if you have Xcode already installed, you can run
`xcode-select--install`. (Note that an Apple ID may be required to access the download
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page.)
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#### <a name="dependencies"> Dependencies

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To build BIND you need to have the following packages installed:
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    libuv
    pkg-config / pkgconfig / pkgconf

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To build BIND from the git repository, you need the following tools
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installed:

    autoconf (includes autoreconf)
    automake
    libtool
    libltdl-dev (Debian) / libtool-ltdl-dev (Fedora/CentOS) / libltdl (FreeBSD)

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#### <a name="opts"/> Compile-time options

To see a full list of configuration options, run `configure --help`.

To build shared libraries, specify `--with-libtool` on the `configure`
command line.

For the server to support DNSSEC, you need to build it with crypto support.
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To use OpenSSL, you should have OpenSSL 1.0.2e or newer installed. If the
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OpenSSL library is installed in a nonstandard location, specify the prefix
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using `--with-openssl=<PREFIX>` on the configure command line. To use a
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PKCS#11 hardware service module for cryptographic operations, specify the
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path to the PKCS#11 provider library using `--with-pkcs11=<PREFIX>`, and
configure BIND with `--enable-native-pkcs11`.
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To support the HTTP statistics channel, the server must be linked with at
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least one of the following libraries: `libxml2`
[http://xmlsoft.org](http://xmlsoft.org) or `json-c`
[https://github.com/json-c/json-c](https://github.com/json-c/json-c).
If these are installed at a nonstandard location, then:
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* for `libxml2`, specify the prefix using `--with-libxml2=/prefix`.
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* for `json-c`, adjust `PKG_CONFIG_PATH`.
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To support compression on the HTTP statistics channel, the server must be
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linked against `libzlib`. If this is installed in a nonstandard location,
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specify the prefix using `--with-zlib=/prefix`.

To support storing configuration data for runtime-added zones in an LMDB
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database, the server must be linked with `liblmdb`. If this is installed in a
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nonstandard location, specify the prefix using `with-lmdb=/prefix`.
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To support MaxMind GeoIP2 location-based ACLs, the server must be linked
with `libmaxminddb`. This is turned on by default if the library is
found; if the library is installed in a nonstandard location,
specify the prefix using `--with-maxminddb=/prefix`. GeoIP2 support
can be switched off with `--disable-geoip`.
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For DNSTAP packet logging, you must have installed `libfstrm`
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[https://github.com/farsightsec/fstrm](https://github.com/farsightsec/fstrm)
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and `libprotobuf-c`
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[https://developers.google.com/protocol-buffers](https://developers.google.com/protocol-buffers),
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and BIND must be configured with `--enable-dnstap`.

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Certain compiled-in constants and default settings can be decreased to
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values better suited to small machines, e.g. OpenWRT boxes, by specifying
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`--with-tuning=small` on the `configure` command line. This decreases
memory usage by using smaller structures, but degrades performance.
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On Linux, process capabilities are managed in user space using
the `libcap` library, which can be installed on most Linux systems via
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the `libcap-dev` or `libcap-devel` package. Process capability support can
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also be disabled by configuring with `--disable-linux-caps`.
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On some platforms it is necessary to explicitly request large file support
to handle files bigger than 2GB.  This can be done by using
`--enable-largefile` on the `configure` command line.

Support for the "fixed" rrset-order option can be enabled or disabled by
specifying `--enable-fixed-rrset` or `--disable-fixed-rrset` on the
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configure command line. By default, fixed rrset-order is disabled to
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reduce memory footprint.

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The `--enable-querytrace` option causes `named` to log every step of
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processing every query. The `--enable-singletrace` option turns on the
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same verbose tracing, but allows an individual query to be separately
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traced by setting its query ID to 0. These options should only be enabled
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when debugging, because they have a significant negative impact on query
performance.
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`make install` installs `named` and the various BIND 9 libraries. By
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default, installation is into /usr/local, but this can be changed with the
`--prefix` option when running `configure`.

You may specify the option `--sysconfdir` to set the directory where
configuration files like `named.conf` go by default, and `--localstatedir`
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to set the default parent directory of `run/named.pid`. `--sysconfdir`
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defaults to `$prefix/etc` and `--localstatedir` defaults to `$prefix/var`.
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### <a name="testing"/> Automated testing

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A system test suite can be run with `make check`. The system tests require
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you to configure a set of virtual IP addresses on your system (this allows
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multiple servers to run locally and communicate with each other). These
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IP addresses can be configured by running the command
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`bin/tests/system/ifconfig.sh up` as root.

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Some tests require Perl and the `Net::DNS` and/or `IO::Socket::INET6` modules,
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and are skipped if these are not available. Some tests require Python
and the `dnspython` module and are skipped if these are not available.
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See bin/tests/system/README for further details.

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Unit tests are implemented using the CMocka unit testing framework. To build
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them, use `configure --with-cmocka`. Execution of tests is done by the automake
parallel test driver; unit tests are also run by `make check`.
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### <a name="doc"/> Documentation

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The *BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual* (ARM) is included with the source
distribution, and in .rst format, in the `doc/arm`
directory. HTML and PDF versions are automatically generated and can
be viewed at [https://bind9.readthedocs.io/en/latest/index.html](https://bind9.readthedocs.io/en/latest/index.html).
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Man pages for some of the programs in the BIND 9 distribution
are also included in the BIND ARM.
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Frequently (and not-so-frequently) asked questions and their answers
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can be found in the ISC Knowledgebase at
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[https://kb.isc.org](https://kb.isc.org).

Additional information on various subjects can be found in other
`README` files throughout the source tree.

### <a name="changes"/> Change log

A detailed list of all changes that have been made throughout the
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development of BIND 9 is included in the file CHANGES, with the most recent
changes listed first. Change notes include tags indicating the category of
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the change that was made; these categories are:

|Category	|Description	        			|
|--------------	|-----------------------------------------------|
| [func] | New feature |
| [bug] | General bug fix |
| [security] | Fix for a significant security flaw |
| [experimental] | Used for new features when the syntax or other aspects of the design are still in flux and may change |
| [port] | Portability enhancement |
| [maint] | Updates to built-in data such as root server addresses and keys |
| [tuning] | Changes to built-in configuration defaults and constants to improve performance |
| [performance] | Other changes to improve server performance |
| [protocol] | Updates to the DNS protocol such as new RR types |
| [test] | Changes to the automatic tests, not affecting server functionality |
| [cleanup] | Minor corrections and refactoring |
| [doc] | Documentation |
| [contrib] | Changes to the contributed tools and libraries in the 'contrib' subdirectory |
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| [placeholder] | Used in the master development branch to reserve change numbers for use in other branches, e.g., when fixing a bug that only exists in older releases |
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In general, [func] and [experimental] tags only appear in new-feature
releases (i.e., those with version numbers ending in zero). Some new
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functionality may be backported to older releases on a case-by-case basis.
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All other change types may be applied to all currently supported releases.
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#### Bug report identifiers

Most notes in the CHANGES file include a reference to a bug report or
issue number. Prior to 2018, these were usually of the form `[RT #NNN]`
and referred to entries in the "bind9-bugs" RT database, which was not open
to the public. More recent entries use the form `[GL #NNN]` or, less often,
`[GL !NNN]`, which, respectively, refer to issues or merge requests in the
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GitLab database. Most of these are publicly readable, unless they include
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information which is confidential or security-sensitive.
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To look up a GitLab issue by its number, use the URL
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[https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/issues/NNN](https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/issues).
To look up a merge request, use
[https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/merge_requests/NNN](https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/merge_requests).

In rare cases, an issue or merge request number may be followed with the
letter "P". This indicates that the information is in the private ISC
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GitLab instance, which is not visible to the public.
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### <a name="ack"/> Acknowledgments

* The original development of BIND 9 was underwritten by the
  following organizations:

		Sun Microsystems, Inc.
		Hewlett Packard
		Compaq Computer Corporation
		IBM
		Process Software Corporation
		Silicon Graphics, Inc.
		Network Associates, Inc.
		U.S. Defense Information Systems Agency
		USENIX Association
		Stichting NLnet - NLnet Foundation
		Nominum, Inc.

* This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use
  in the OpenSSL Toolkit.
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  [https://www.OpenSSL.org/](https://www.OpenSSL.org/)
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* This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young
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  (eay@cryptsoft.com).
* This product includes software written by Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com).