Commit 075ccbd6 authored by Suzanne Goldlust's avatar Suzanne Goldlust Committed by Ondřej Surý

Various text edits and corrections to README.md

parent 6dfdb148
......@@ -28,26 +28,26 @@
### <a name="intro"/> Introduction
BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is a complete, highly portable
implementation of the DNS (Domain Name System) protocol.
implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS) protocol.
The BIND name server, `named`, is able to serve as an authoritative name
server, recursive resolver, DNS forwarder, or all three simultaneously. It
The BIND name server, `named`, can act as an authoritative name
server, recursive resolver, DNS forwarder, or all three simultaneously. It
implements views for split-horizon DNS, automatic DNSSEC zone signing and
key management, catalog zones to facilitate provisioning of zone data
throughout a name server constellation, response policy zones (RPZ) to
protect clients from malicious data, response rate limiting (RRL) and
recursive query limits to reduce distributed denial of service attacks,
and many other advanced DNS features. BIND also includes a suite of
and many other advanced DNS features. BIND also includes a suite of
administrative tools, including the `dig` and `delv` DNS lookup tools,
`nsupdate` for dynamic DNS zone updates, `rndc` for remote name server
administration, and more.
BIND 9 began as a complete re-write of the BIND architecture that was
BIND 9 began as a complete rewrite of the BIND architecture that was
used in versions 4 and 8. Internet Systems Consortium
([https://www.isc.org](https://www.isc.org)), a 501(c)(3) public benefit
([https://www.isc.org](https://www.isc.org)), a 501(c)(3) US public benefit
corporation dedicated to providing software and services in support of the
Internet infrastructure, developed BIND 9 and is responsible for its
ongoing maintenance and improvement. BIND is open source software
ongoing maintenance and improvement. BIND is open source software
licensed under the terms of the Mozilla Public License, version 2.0.
For a summary of features introduced in past major releases of BIND,
......@@ -65,19 +65,19 @@ For information about supported platforms, see [PLATFORMS](PLATFORMS.md).
### <a name="help"/> Reporting bugs and getting help
To report non-security-sensitive bugs or request new features, you may
open an Issue in the BIND 9 project on the
open an issue in the BIND 9 project on the
[ISC GitLab server](https://gitlab.isc.org) at
[https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9](https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9).
Please note that, unless you explicitly mark the newly created Issue as
"confidential", it will be publicly readable. Please do not include any
Please note that, unless you explicitly mark the newly created issue as
"confidential," it will be publicly readable. Please do not include any
information in bug reports that you consider to be confidential unless
the issue has been marked as such. In particular, if submitting the
contents of your configuration file in a non-confidential Issue, it is
advisable to obscure key secrets: this can be done automatically by
the issue has been marked as such. In particular, if submitting the
contents of your configuration file in a non-confidential issue, it is
advisable to obscure key secrets; this can be done automatically by
using `named-checkconf -px`.
If the bug you are reporting is a potential security issue, such as an
If you are reporting a bug that is a potential security issue, such as an
assertion failure or other crash in `named`, please do *NOT* use GitLab to
report it. Instead, send mail to
[security-officer@isc.org](mailto:security-officer@isc.org) using our
......@@ -86,11 +86,12 @@ to our key can be found at
[https://www.isc.org/pgpkey](https://www.isc.org/pgpkey).) Please do not
discuss the bug on any public mailing list.
For a general overview of ISC security policies, read the Knowledge Base
For a general overview of ISC security policies, read the Knowledgebase
article at [https://kb.isc.org/docs/aa-00861](https://kb.isc.org/docs/aa-00861).
Professional support and training for BIND are available from
ISC at [https://www.isc.org/support](https://www.isc.org/support).
ISC. Contact us at [https://www.isc.org/contact](https://www.isc.org/contact)
for more information.
To join the __BIND Users__ mailing list, or view the archives, visit
[https://lists.isc.org/mailman/listinfo/bind-users](https://lists.isc.org/mailman/listinfo/bind-users).
......@@ -102,7 +103,7 @@ may also want to join the __BIND Workers__ mailing list, at
### <a name="contrib"/> Contributing to BIND
ISC maintains a public git repository for BIND; details can be found
at [http://www.isc.org/git/](http://www.isc.org/git/).
at [https://www.isc.org/sourceaccess/](https://www.isc.org/sourceaccess/).
Information for BIND contributors can be found in the following files:
- General information: [CONTRIBUTING.md](CONTRIBUTING.md)
......@@ -112,16 +113,15 @@ Information for BIND contributors can be found in the following files:
Patches for BIND may be submitted as
[merge requests](https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/merge_requests)
in the [ISC GitLab server](https://gitlab.isc.org) at
at [https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/merge_requests](https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/merge_requests).
on the [ISC GitLab server](https://gitlab.isc.org).
By default, external contributors don't have ability to fork BIND in the
GitLab server, but if you wish to contribute code to BIND, you may request
By default, external contributors do not have the ability to fork BIND on the
GitLab server; if you wish to contribute code to BIND, you may request
permission to do so. Thereafter, you can create git branches and directly
submit requests that they be reviewed and merged.
If you prefer, you may also submit code by opening a
[GitLab Issue](https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/issues) and
[GitLab issue](https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/issues) and
including your patch as an attachment, preferably generated by
`git format-patch`.
......@@ -130,15 +130,15 @@ including your patch as an attachment, preferably generated by
BIND 9.17 is the newest development branch of BIND 9. It includes a
number of changes from BIND 9.16 and earlier releases. New features include:
* New option "max-ixfr-ratio" to limit the size of outgoing IXFR responses
* The new option `max-ixfr-ratio` to limit the size of outgoing IXFR responses
before falling back to full zone transfers.
* "rndc nta -d" and "rndc secroots" now include "validate-except" entries
* `rndc nta -d` and `rndc secroots` now include `validate-except` entries
when listing negative trust anchors.
### <a name="build"/> Building BIND
### <a name="build"/> Building BIND 9
Minimally, BIND requires a UNIX or Linux system with an ANSI C compiler,
basic POSIX support, and a 64-bit integer type. BIND also requires the
At a minimum, BIND requires a Unix or Linux system with an ANSI C compiler,
basic POSIX support, and a 64-bit integer type. BIND also requires the
`libuv` asynchronous I/O library, and a cryptography provider library
such as OpenSSL or a hardware service module supporting PKCS#11. On
Linux, BIND requires the `libcap` library to set process privileges,
......@@ -148,15 +148,15 @@ for details on other libraries that may be required to support
optional features.
Successful builds have been observed on many versions of Linux and
UNIX, including RHEL/CentOS, Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, SLES, openSUSE,
Unix, including RHEL/CentOS, Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, SLES, openSUSE,
Slackware, Alpine, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, macOS, Solaris,
OpenIndiana, OmniOS CE, HP-UX, and OpenWRT.
BIND is also available for Windows Server 2012 R2 and higher. See
BIND 9 is also available for Windows Server 2012 R2 and higher. See
`win32utils/build.txt` for details on building for Windows
systems.
To build on a UNIX or Linux system, use:
To build on a Unix or Linux system, use:
$ autoreconf -fi (if you are building in the git repository)
$ ./configure
......@@ -165,7 +165,7 @@ To build on a UNIX or Linux system, use:
If you're planning on making changes to the BIND 9 source, you should run
`make depend`. If you're using Emacs, you might find `make tags` helpful.
Several environment variables that can be set before running `configure` will
Several environment variables, which can be set before running `configure`,
affect compilation. Significant ones are:
|Variable|Description |
......@@ -182,21 +182,21 @@ command:
#### <a name="macos"> macOS
Building on macOS assumes that the "Command Tools for Xcode" is installed.
This can be downloaded from
Building on macOS assumes that the "Command Tools for Xcode" are installed.
These can be downloaded from
[https://developer.apple.com/download/more/](https://developer.apple.com/download/more/)
or, if you have Xcode already installed, you can run `xcode-select
--install`. (Note that an Apple ID may be required to access the download
or, if you have Xcode already installed, you can run
`xcode-select--install`. (Note that an Apple ID may be required to access the download
page.)
#### <a name="dependencies"> Dependencies
To build BIND you need to following packages installed:
To build BIND you need to have the following packages installed:
libuv
pkg-config / pkgconfig / pkgconf
To build BIND from the git repository you will need the following tools
To build BIND from the git repository, you need the following tools
installed:
autoconf (includes autoreconf)
......@@ -212,7 +212,7 @@ To build shared libraries, specify `--with-libtool` on the `configure`
command line.
For the server to support DNSSEC, you need to build it with crypto support.
To use OpenSSL, you should have OpenSSL 1.0.2e or newer installed. If the
To use OpenSSL, you should have OpenSSL 1.0.2e or newer installed. If the
OpenSSL library is installed in a nonstandard location, specify the prefix
using `--with-openssl=<PREFIX>` on the configure command line. To use a
PKCS#11 hardware service module for cryptographic operations, specify the
......@@ -225,15 +225,15 @@ least one of the following libraries: `libxml2`
[https://github.com/json-c/json-c](https://github.com/json-c/json-c).
If these are installed at a nonstandard location, then:
* for `libxml2`, specify the prefix using `--with-libxml2=/prefix`,
* for `libxml2`, specify the prefix using `--with-libxml2=/prefix`.
* for `json-c`, adjust `PKG_CONFIG_PATH`.
To support compression on the HTTP statistics channel, the server must be
linked against `libzlib`. If this is installed in a nonstandard location,
linked against `libzlib`. If this is installed in a nonstandard location,
specify the prefix using `--with-zlib=/prefix`.
To support storing configuration data for runtime-added zones in an LMDB
database, the server must be linked with liblmdb. If this is installed in a
database, the server must be linked with `liblmdb`. If this is installed in a
nonstandard location, specify the prefix using `with-lmdb=/prefix`.
To support MaxMind GeoIP2 location-based ACLs, the server must be linked
......@@ -250,8 +250,8 @@ and BIND must be configured with `--enable-dnstap`.
Certain compiled-in constants and default settings can be decreased to
values better suited to small machines, e.g. OpenWRT boxes, by specifying
`--with-tuning=small` on the `configure` command line. This will decrease
memory usage by using smaller structures, but will degrade performance.
`--with-tuning=small` on the `configure` command line. This decreases
memory usage by using smaller structures, but degrades performance.
On Linux, process capabilities are managed in user space using
the `libcap` library, which can be installed on most Linux systems via
......@@ -264,54 +264,54 @@ to handle files bigger than 2GB. This can be done by using
Support for the "fixed" rrset-order option can be enabled or disabled by
specifying `--enable-fixed-rrset` or `--disable-fixed-rrset` on the
configure command line. By default, fixed rrset-order is disabled to
configure command line. By default, fixed rrset-order is disabled to
reduce memory footprint.
The `--enable-querytrace` option causes `named` to log every step of
processing every query. The `--enable-singletrace` option turns on the
processing every query. The `--enable-singletrace` option turns on the
same verbose tracing, but allows an individual query to be separately
traced by setting its query ID to 0. These options should only be enabled
traced by setting its query ID to 0. These options should only be enabled
when debugging, because they have a significant negative impact on query
performance.
`make install` will install `named` and the various BIND 9 libraries. By
`make install` installs `named` and the various BIND 9 libraries. By
default, installation is into /usr/local, but this can be changed with the
`--prefix` option when running `configure`.
You may specify the option `--sysconfdir` to set the directory where
configuration files like `named.conf` go by default, and `--localstatedir`
to set the default parent directory of `run/named.pid`. `--sysconfdir`
to set the default parent directory of `run/named.pid`. `--sysconfdir`
defaults to `$prefix/etc` and `--localstatedir` defaults to `$prefix/var`.
### <a name="testing"/> Automated testing
A system test suite can be run with `make check`. The system tests require
A system test suite can be run with `make check`. The system tests require
you to configure a set of virtual IP addresses on your system (this allows
multiple servers to run locally and communicate with one another). These
multiple servers to run locally and communicate with each other). These
IP addresses can be configured by running the command
`bin/tests/system/ifconfig.sh up` as root.
Some tests require Perl and the `Net::DNS` and/or `IO::Socket::INET6` modules,
and will be skipped if these are not available. Some tests require Python
and the `dnspython` module and will be skipped if these are not available.
and are skipped if these are not available. Some tests require Python
and the `dnspython` module and are skipped if these are not available.
See bin/tests/system/README for further details.
Unit tests are implemented using the CMocka unit testing framework. To build
Unit tests are implemented using the CMocka unit testing framework. To build
them, use `configure --with-cmocka`. Execution of tests is done by the automake
parallel test driver; unit tests are also run by `make check`.
### <a name="doc"/> Documentation
The *BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual* is included with the source
distribution, in DocBook XML, HTML, and PDF format, in the `doc/arm`
directory.
The *BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual* (ARM) is included with the source
distribution, and in .rst format, in the `doc/arm`
directory. HTML and PDF versions are automatically generated and can
be viewed at [https://bind9.readthedocs.io/en/latest/index.html](https://bind9.readthedocs.io/en/latest/index.html).
Some of the programs in the BIND 9 distribution have man pages in their
directories. In particular, the command line options of `named` are
documented in `bin/named/named.8`.
Man pages for some of the programs in the BIND 9 distribution
are also included in the BIND ARM.
Frequently (and not-so-frequently) asked questions and their answers
can be found in the ISC Knowledge Base at
can be found in the ISC Knowledgebase at
[https://kb.isc.org](https://kb.isc.org).
Additional information on various subjects can be found in other
......@@ -320,8 +320,8 @@ Additional information on various subjects can be found in other
### <a name="changes"/> Change log
A detailed list of all changes that have been made throughout the
development BIND 9 is included in the file CHANGES, with the most recent
changes listed first. Change notes include tags indicating the category of
development of BIND 9 is included in the file CHANGES, with the most recent
changes listed first. Change notes include tags indicating the category of
the change that was made; these categories are:
|Category |Description |
......@@ -339,12 +339,12 @@ the change that was made; these categories are:
| [cleanup] | Minor corrections and refactoring |
| [doc] | Documentation |
| [contrib] | Changes to the contributed tools and libraries in the 'contrib' subdirectory |
| [placeholder] | Used in the master development branch to reserve change numbers for use in other branches, e.g. when fixing a bug that only exists in older releases |
| [placeholder] | Used in the master development branch to reserve change numbers for use in other branches, e.g., when fixing a bug that only exists in older releases |
In general, [func] and [experimental] tags will only appear in new-feature
releases (i.e., those with version numbers ending in zero). Some new
In general, [func] and [experimental] tags only appear in new-feature
releases (i.e., those with version numbers ending in zero). Some new
functionality may be backported to older releases on a case-by-case basis.
All other change types may be applied to all currently-supported releases.
All other change types may be applied to all currently supported releases.
#### Bug report identifiers
......@@ -354,7 +354,7 @@ and referred to entries in the "bind9-bugs" RT database, which was not open
to the public. More recent entries use the form `[GL #NNN]` or, less often,
`[GL !NNN]`, which, respectively, refer to issues or merge requests in the
GitLab database. Most of these are publicly readable, unless they include
information which is confidential or security sensitive.
information which is confidential or security-sensitive.
To look up a GitLab issue by its number, use the URL
[https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/issues/NNN](https://gitlab.isc.org/isc-projects/bind9/issues).
......@@ -384,7 +384,7 @@ GitLab instance, which is not visible to the public.
* This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use
in the OpenSSL Toolkit.
[http://www.OpenSSL.org/](http://www.OpenSSL.org/)
[https://www.OpenSSL.org/](https://www.OpenSSL.org/)
* This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young
(eay@cryptsoft.com)
* This product includes software written by Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com)
(eay@cryptsoft.com).
* This product includes software written by Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com).
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