[9.18] Update the event loop's time after executing a task

Tasks can block for a long time, especially when used by tools in interactive mode. Update the event loop's time to avoid unexpected errors when processing later events during the same callback. For example, newly started timers can fire too early, because the current time was stale. See the note about uv_update_time() in the https://docs.libuv.org/en/v1.x/timer.html#c.uv_timer_start page.

Closes #4044 (closed)

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